Edible oils and fats and produced by nature, which can be sourced from material of vegetable or animal. Fat and oil is a triglyceride, or tag, the second term is erarti triester of glycerol (of). The difference between a fat and oil, at room temperature solid fats and liquid nature inyak. A large part of triacylglycerol fatty erupa is on animals, whereas triacylglycerol in plants tend to be either oil, because it's usually a sound expression of animal fats and vegetable oils. Carboxylic acids obtained from the hydrolysis of a fat and oil, called fatty acids have a long hydrocarbon chains and not branched (Fessenden and Fessenden, 1994).
According to Ketaren (1986), the fats and oils are one of the groups that are included on the lipid that is an organic compound that is found in nature and is insoluble in water, but soluble in non-polar organic solvents such as chloroform (CHCl3), benzene and other hydrocarbons, fats and oils are soluble in solvents mentioned above because the fats and oils have the same polarity of the solvent. Based on chemical bonding, fat in the cooking oil are divided two saturated fat and not saturated. The Division is not saturated and saturated it's got significance because of its influence on the effect of the increased blood cholesterol (Djatmiko, 1973, Luciana et al, 2005). Fats and oils can be distinguished from movie kejenuhannya
Saturated fatty acid is a fatty acid containing single bonds in a chain of carbons, have zig zag chains which can be matched to each other so that the style pull vanderwaals high and usually takes the form of the solid. While not saturated fatty acids is fatty acids that contain one double bond in the chain hidrokarbonnya. Fatty acids with more than one or two unusual bonding, mainly found in vegetable oils, these oils are called poliunsaturate (double not saturated triglycerides) tend to be shaped oil (Djatmiko, 1973, Fessenden and Fessenden, 1994).
Cooking oil contain saturated fatty acids and not saturated. Saturated fatty acids in cooking oil generally consists of asammiristat, lauric acid, Palmitic acid, and acid kaprat. Not saturated fatty acids in cooking oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acid (Soedarmo, 1985 and Samson, 2007). Saturated fats are not plentiful in cooking oil that comes from olive seeds, nuts, corn, Sesame, sunflower and soybeans. As for Palm oil which is the main raw material of cooking oil which is currently circulating a lot fat not saturated fat content similar to the jenuhnya, in other words not including cooking oil is not healthy as some people (believed to be Soedarmo, 1985).
Benefits of fat not saturated cholesterol-lowering as will be reduced although not entirely if used for frying (temperature at the time the FRY are generally about 180 ° C). This happens because of the heat in the process of frying can damage chemical bonds strukur no jenuhnya. Fats and oils is an organic compound that is important to the life of living beings. As for the functions of fats and oils include:
- Savory flavors and aromas are specific (a distinctive smell).
- An effective energy source compared with protein and carbohydrates because oxidized fats and oils if perfectly will produce 9 calories/liters of fat or oil. While protein and carbohydrates only produces 4 calories each 1 gram of protein and carbohydrates.
- Because the boiling point of oil is high, then the oil is typically used for frying foods where the ingredients are fried will lose most of the water they contain or dried up.
- Provide consistency of tender, smooth and coated in bread making.
- Give a gentle and soft texture in the making of ice cream.
- Vegetable oil is the main ingredient in the manufacture of margarine.
- Animal fats are the main ingredients of making milk and butter.
- Prevent blockage of blood vessels.
(source: Ketaren, 1986 and Winarno, 1988).
Fats and oils are commonly used in the manufacture of soaps is a triglyceride with three irregular fatty acids with glycerol diesterifikasi. Not saturated fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linoleic acid are found in cooking oil is a triglyceride can be used as an alternative raw material manufacture of dish SOAP liquid replace the free fatty acids saturated is a by-product of the processing of cooking oil (Djatmiko, 1973 and Ketaren, 1986).
Each fat molecule contains fatty acids with a carbon chain length between C12 (lauric acid) to C18 (stearic acid) containing saturated fats and so also with unsaturated fats. A mixture of triglycerides processed into SOAP through a process of saponifikasi with potassium hydroxide solution frees the glycerol (Ketaren, 1986).
1. Fry In Oil Content
Fried in oil content behind a clear yellowish color, cooking oil is a mixture of berbagaisenyawa. The composition of most of the cooking oil that reaches almost 100% is fat (Luciana, 2005). Most of the fats in food (including cooking oils) shaped triglycerides. If unraveled, triglycerides will turn into one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules. The more triglycerides are broken down more and more free fatty acids produced (Morton and Varela, 1988), in the process of further oxidation, free fatty acids will cause the oil or FAT becomes rancid smell (Ketaren,1986). Usually to eliminate or slow oxidation which menyababkan this rancid smell, plus cooking oil with vitamin A, C, D or E (Luciana, 2005). Standard quality cooking oil can be seen in table 2.2.
Table 1. Quality Standard Of Cooking Oil
|1||The smell of||Normal|
|2||A sense of||Normal|
|5||Moisture Content||Maks 0.3%|
|6||Free Fatty Acids||Max. 0.3%|
|7||Smoke Point||Max. 200oC|
|8||The Number Of Iodine||45-51|
(Source: SNI 3741 – 1995 standard quality cooking oil)
2. The Danger Of Used Cooking Oil
During frying, cooking oil will experience warming at high temperature – 170 ° C 180 ° C in quite a long time. This will cause the onset of the process of oxidation, hydrolysis and polymerization which produces compounds – such as oil degradation results compounds ketones, the pillars of the polymer and the adverse human health. Process – the process causing the oil damage. The main damage was to the onset of rancid smell and taste, while the other damage include increased levels of free fatty acids (FFA), the number of iodine (IV), the incidence of oil viscosity, formation of foam, just dirt from the seasoning used and materials Fried (Ketaren, 1986).
The use of oil with temperature – berkali Pan high enough will cause the oil to become quick smoky or foaming and increase the brown color and flavor that is not preferred on fried foods. Cooking oil damage that lasts for the Pan will lose nutritional value and quality of the ingredients are fried. But if the former disposed cooking oils in addition to not economical will also pollute the environment (Ketaren, 1986 and Susinggih, et al, 2005).
Damage of oil will affect the quality and nutritional value of food fried. Oils that are damaged by the process of oxidation and polymerization will produce materials with all the less attractive and taste awful, as well as damage to most of vitamins and essential fatty acids contained in the oil. The oxidation of the oil will produce aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcohol, respectively as well as an aromatic compound which has a rancid smell and taste bitter. Polymer compound formation during frying process occurs because the polymerization reaction, the addition of fatty acids is not saturated. This is evident with the formation of the ingredients resemble gum (bubble) that settles in the bottom of the place penggoregan (Ketaren, 1986).
For most frying oils will teradsorbsi and into the outside of the material filling the empty spaces are fried and originally filled by water. Results of frying usually contain 5%-40% of the oil. A damaged oil consumption can cause a range of diseases such as the deposition of fat in blood vessels (Artherosclerosis) and a decrease in the value of cerna fat (Luciana, Nur, 2005 and 2008).
Based on previous research mentioned the possibility of carcinogenic compounds in heated oil, attested from oxidized fatty foodstuffs which can lead to the growth of liver cancer. Selan during frying will also formed the nonprofit Acrolein compounds toxic and cause itching in the throat (Luciana, 2005 and Queen, 2008). Fried food will use oils that have been damaged will have the texture and appearance of the less interesting as well as the taste and smell of the less palatable (Ketaren, 1986 and Queen, 2008).
With respect to the number of used cooking oil from the rest of the industry as well as the high number of households and aware of the dangers of cooking oil consumption, then the necessary efforts – efforts to utilize the former cooking oil so as not to wastage and polluting the environment. Utilization of used cooking oil purification can be done so that it can be reused as a medium frying pan or used as the raw material for oil-based products such as SOAP (Susinggih et al, 2005).
3. Purification Of Used Cooking Oil
Purification is the first stage of dariproses utilization of used cooking oil, which can be used as cooking oil or product as a raw material for the manufacture of SOAP cucipiring liquid. The main purpose of this cooking oil purification is to remove the odor and taste of bad taste, colors that are less attractive and extend dayasimpan before reuse (Susinggih et al, 2005).
Cooking oil purification includes 3 stages of the process are:
- Removal of seasoning (despicing)
- Pemucatan (bleaching)
- Removal of seasoning (despicing)
Removal of seasoning (despicing) is the process of deposition and separation separation due to dirt and grime from seasoning foodstuffs aimed at removing fine suspended or patikel shaped colloids such as proteins, carbohydrates, salt, sugar, and spices – spice used for frying foodstuffs. Tools used for the process of removal of seasoning (despicing) in this experiment is the filter paper.
Neutralization is the process to lower the value of the free fatty acids (FFA) from a used cooking oil by reacting free fatty acids (FFA) with aqueous base. SOAP is formed at the beginning of the process of neutralization can not dissolve in oil and can be separated by means of centrifugation. In addition a process of neutralization also to eliminate the material cause of a dark color, so that the oil becomes more clear. The materials used for the process of penetralisasian in this experiment is potassium hydroxide (KOH).
- Pemucatan (Bleaching)
Pemucatan (Bleaching) is an attempt to eliminate the substances natural color and other colors which is a natural substance, the influence of degradation of metal and color due to oxidation (Ketaren, 1986 and Susinggih et al, 2005).
- Aulia, Willy. 2010. "The influence of particle size of sugar cane husks as baha absorbent unsaturated fatty acids (oleic acid, linoleic acid, lonolenat Acid) and Pelican in oil jelantah oil out. Other Thesis, Faculty Of ENGINEERING, The University Of Andalas.
- Darmawan s. 2006. The making of Pecan and Pemurniannya with Active Charcoal and Bentonite. Journal of Research Results Hutan24:413-423.
- Djatmiko B, S Ketaren. 1985. Refining Of Oil. Bogor: Industrial Agriculture Press.
- Fessenden RJ., 1996. Organic Chemistry. 2nd Edition. Willard Grant Press/PWS Publishers, Massachusetts, USA.
- Freedman, b., Pryde, er., Mounts, TL., 1984. Variables Affecting the Yields of Fatty Esters From Vegetable Olis Transesterification. J Am Chem Soc Oil 61:1638-1643.
- Heyne, k., 1987. Useful Plants Of Indonesia. Translation Agency Peneltian and Forestry Development. Cooperative Forestry Department Employee. Vol 3. Jakarta.
- Ketaren, s., 1986. Introduction to the Technology of food oils and fats. UI pRess. Jakarta.
- Kirk, RE and Othmer, d.f., 1982. Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, vol 8-9 third edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
- Kusuma, I.G.B.W., 2003, "the making of Biodiesel Oil from Jelantah and testing against Diesel Engines Work Achievements", Shaft, volume 6 No. 4 2003, pp. 227-234
- Ma, Fangrui and Milford a. Hanna, (1999), "Biodiesel Production: A review", ELSEVIER.
- Ozgul S, Turkay s., 2002. Vegetables Affecting the Yields of Methyl ester Derived from in situ Esterification of Rice Bran oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. 79:611-614.
- 07 182-2006 SNI.2006.SM. Biodiesel. Bsn
- Sudradjat, r., Setiawan, d.,2004, reports the results of research of biodisel plants making the distance fences (continued). Forest Products R & D Center. Bogor. Not published.
- Widiono, b., 1995, "Castor seed oil Alkoholisis in reactor Columns Berpulsa in ongoing process in terms of Kinetics", thesis presented to the graduate faculty of GADJAH MADA UNIVERSITY, Yogyakarta.
- Wijayanti, Ria 2009. " Active charcoal from Sugarcane Pulp as Adsorbents on Pemurnia cooking oil Scars '. Department Of Chemistry, ENGINEERING,, Bogor Agricultural University.