Edible oils and fats and produced by nature, which can be sourced from material of vegetable or animal. Fat and oil is a triglyceride, or tag, the second term is erarti triester of glycerol (of). The difference between a fat and oil, at room temperature solid fats and liquid nature inyak. A large part of triacylglycerol fatty erupa is on animals, whereas triacylglycerol in plants tend to be either oil, because it's usually a sound expression of animal fats and vegetable oils. Carboxylic acids obtained from the hydrolysis of a fat and oil, called fatty acids have a long hydrocarbon chains and not branched (Fessenden and Fessenden, 1994).
According to Ketaren (1986), the fats and oils are one of the groups that are included on the lipid that is an organic compound that is found in nature and is insoluble in water, but soluble in non-polar organic solvents such as chloroform (CHCl3), benzene and other hydrocarbons, fats and oils are soluble in solvents mentioned above because the fats and oils have the same polarity of the solvent. Based on chemical bonding, fat in the cooking oil are divided two saturated fat and not saturated. The Division is not saturated and saturated it's got significance because of its influence on the effect of the increased blood cholesterol (Djatmiko, 1973, Luciana et al, 2005). Fats and oils can be distinguished from movie kejenuhannya
Saturated fatty acid is a fatty acid containing single bonds in a chain of carbons, have zig zag chains which can be matched to each other so that the style pull vanderwaals high and usually takes the form of the solid. While not saturated fatty acids is fatty acids that contain one double bond in the chain hidrokarbonnya. Fatty acids with more than one or two unusual bonding, mainly found in vegetable oils, these oils are called poliunsaturate (double not saturated triglycerides) tend to be shaped oil (Djatmiko, 1973, Fessenden and Fessenden, 1994).
Cooking oil contain saturated fatty acids and not saturated. Saturated fatty acids in cooking oil generally consists of asammiristat, lauric acid, Palmitic acid, and acid kaprat. Not saturated fatty acids in cooking oil contains oleic acid and linoleic acid (Soedarmo, 1985 and Samson, 2007). Saturated fats are not plentiful in cooking oil that comes from olive seeds, nuts, corn, Sesame, sunflower and soybeans. As for Palm oil which is the main raw material of cooking oil which is currently circulating a lot fat not saturated fat content similar to the jenuhnya, in other words not including cooking oil is not healthy as some people (believed to be Soedarmo, 1985).
Benefits of fat not saturated cholesterol-lowering as will be reduced although not entirely if used for frying (temperature at the time the FRY are generally about 180 ° C). This happens because of the heat in the process of frying can damage chemical bonds strukur no jenuhnya. Fats and oils is an organic compound that is important to the life of living beings. As for the functions of fats and oils include:
- Savory flavors and aromas are specific (a distinctive smell).
- An effective energy source compared with protein and carbohydrates because oxidized fats and oils if perfectly will produce 9 calories/liters of fat or oil. While protein and carbohydrates only produces 4 calories each 1 gram of protein and carbohydrates.
- Because the boiling point of oil is high, then the oil is typically used for frying foods where the ingredients are fried will lose most of the water they contain or dried up.
- Provide consistency of tender, smooth and coated in bread making.
- Give a gentle and soft texture in the making of ice cream.
- Vegetable oil is the main ingredient in the manufacture of margarine.
- Animal fats are the main ingredients of making milk and butter.
- Prevent blockage of blood vessels.
(source: Ketaren, 1986 and Winarno, 1988).
Fats and oils are commonly used in the manufacture of soaps is a triglyceride with three irregular fatty acids with glycerol diesterifikasi. Not saturated fatty acids such as oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linoleic acid are found in cooking oil is a triglyceride can be used as an alternative raw material manufacture of dish SOAP liquid replace the free fatty acids saturated is a by-product of the processing of cooking oil (Djatmiko, 1973 and Ketaren, 1986).
Each fat molecule contains fatty acids with a carbon chain length between C12 (lauric acid) to C18 (stearic acid) containing saturated fats and so also with unsaturated fats. A mixture of triglycerides processed into SOAP through a process of saponifikasi with potassium hydroxide solution frees the glycerol (Ketaren, 1986).
1. Fry In Oil Content
Fried in oil content behind a clear yellowish color, cooking oil is a mixture of berbagaisenyawa. The composition of most of the cooking oil that reaches almost 100% is fat (Luciana, 2005). Most of the fats in food (including cooking oils) shaped triglycerides. If unraveled, triglycerides will turn into one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules. The more triglycerides are broken down more and more free fatty acids produced (Morton and Varela, 1988), in the process of further oxidation, free fatty acids will cause the oil or FAT becomes rancid smell (Ketaren,1986). Usually to eliminate or slow oxidation which menyababkan this rancid smell, plus cooking oil with vitamin A, C, D or E (Luciana, 2005). Standard quality cooking oil can be seen in table 2.2.
Table 1. Quality Standard Of Cooking Oil