That morning in the city of Bogor, according to her nickname, the rain still continues to mengguyur buses DAMRI we were travelling. Lucky, the end goal is IPB ICC, place dilaksanakannnya ISIBio 2017, events of biorefineri biomass which I will follow. Rainfall is quite high in Indonesia, as well as year-round sunshine positively impact on the abundance of biomass resources and geographic advantages is Indonesia compared to countries that are far away from the equator. The symposium was initiated by one of the leading science and Technology Centers (PUI) Integrated Biorefineri – Biotechnology Puslit LIPI, gives an insight into the progress of research in this field, as it features many competent speakers of the various agencies concerned. Two days later, stadium general in Yogyakarta with the title: the Biorefinery, the bridge between sustainability and economy, from Prof. John Sanders, the Netherlands origin adds to the corpus of how attractive and the number of potential that can be excavated from biorefineri. Note with regard to two inspiring event above, the author will serve to further the end of this paper.
Back to the question in my previous writings about which are the most effective methods of pretreatment in the separation of the main components of the biomass (cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose)? It turns out that indeed there is no ivory does not crack, that’s roughly matching proverb describes the various methods that have been mentioned in the first part of this paper. Each of these methods have strengths and weaknesses individually, as described in Table 1 below.
Table 1 advantages and disadvantages of various methods of pretreatment of biomass
I will not explain more details about Table 1, because in addition to it’s pretty obvious in terms of separation, from technology to any ekonomisannya a little-mentioned. But there are those who haven’t pretreatment method in the table and is taken into account at this time. One of them is the ionic liquid pretreatment, which effectively changes the cellulose into glucose, without separating them with hemicellulose or lignin, so the necessary reaction temperature below 100 ° c. The weakness of this method is expensive ionic liquid, so it requires a process recycle.
Although each of these methods have advantages and disadvantages, of course I will try to conclude one of the methods has advantages compared to other methods. When we came to the industrialized world, there’s an industry that’s been dozens or even hundreds of years to come into contact with this biomass pretreatment, long before the topic biorefineri concern. Yes, the answer is the paper industry. The making of paper has been started by utilizing the biomass in China since the Han dynasty (25-220 A.D.) or even a few years earlier. While the modern and still in use today are kraft method discovered by Carl f. Dahl in 1879 year Germany. This is a popular method, of course with a variety of ongoing improvement. This kraft method using dangerous chemicals is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, chemicals which are quite cheap and easy to come by. The method already well proven this necessarily referable to the biomass pretreatment. So I conclude that alkaline pretreatment as the most effective method and current applicable to separate the cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose.
Back to the record of the activities of the biorefineri in the paragraph beginning, there are interesting things presented Dr. Shinji Hama on ISIBio 2017, he calculate the price of the production of the second generation bioetanol (derived from biomass) in his company is ¥ 70/litre or around Rp. 8400. Of course this is very useful information for the Government as a regulator bioenergy, in this case specifically the Directorate General Renewable Energy and energy conservation (EBTKE), the Ministry of energy and Mineral resources (DEMR). The Bioetanol is mixed petrol to 10% (biopremium), will certainly be able to reduce the dependence of FUEL imports and against the crude oil that is already approaching the figure of one million barrels per day. This price is considered Andaipun still pretty expensive, we can learn to Brazil’s successful producing bioetanol from sugar cane (first generation) and able to be free of the dependence of oil imports from the Middle East. If the last option is taken, certainly the Government can leverage around 30 million hectares of critical land for planting sugar cane, so that we can simultaneously produce granulated sugar and bioetanol, as I’ve discussed in full at the writings of others. Another advantage when sugar factories and waste biomass bioetanol constructed, the produced can be used as a raw material for the production of various chemicals and biofuels through the process of biorefineri. Of course with the variety of this step, then expected, the Government not only was able to increase the number of jobs in the area, but at the same time also increases the economic value biomass.
- Alvira P, Tomás-Pejó E, Ballesteros M, Negro, M.J. (2010). Pretreatment technologies for an efficient bioethanol production process based on enzymatic reactions hydrolysis: A review. Bioresource Technology 101, 4851 – 4861
- Papermaking. (2007). In: Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 9, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- Biermann, Christopher j. (1993). Essentials of Pulping and Papermaking. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. ISBN0-12-097360-X.