Get to know Battery Aluminum-Air (water), a superior Battery Lithium-ion and has been applied in electric car

The development of electric power cars with many criticised due to the availability of fossil fuels are depleting. At the moment, relying on electric car battery as the energy source and the place peyimpanan. There are two types of battery that's been mass-produced, primary and secondary batteries. The primary battery is a rechargeable battery cannot be recharged (disposable only) while the secondary battery is a battery that can be recharged like a mobile phone and laptop batteries. In the selection of the battery, there are two fundamental things that must be considered, namely the power density (power meeting) and the energy density (energy meeting). The energy meeting is the ability to store energy in batteries which are expressed in Wh/kg while meeting power is capable of power generated from an energy storage (batteries) are expressed in Watts/kg. Lithium-ion battery (included into the secondary battery) is being criticised for warm utilized in larger scale i.e. to produce electrical energy in the vehicle. The Tesla company who develop and make use of lithium are massive for electric cars. However, metal-air battery (Metal-Air Battery) in the last few years to steal the attention of many researchers of the world being able to generate electricity from the metallic oxidation reactions with air. Types of metal-air batteries that have been researched include lithium-air (Li-water), magnesium-air (Mg-water), zinc-air (Zn-air), natirum-air (Na-water) and aluminium-air (water)[1].

The components contained in a metal-air battery is the same as like the batteries in general such as electrodes (anode, cathode) and an electrolyte. The anode is where oxidation reaction occurs in which electrons are removed. While the cathode reduction reaction occurs as a place where the electrons resulting from the oxidation process used for the reaction. Metal-air batteries already massive research and its application to aluminum-air battery is (aluminum-air battery). For aluminum-air battery scheme is shown by Figure 1.

Figure 1. Aluminum-air battery scheme
Source: Liu Yisi, dkk, 2017 [1]

The anode on the aluminum-air battery uses metal aluminum (Al) who will experience oxidation into Al3 +. On the side of the cathode reaction will occur reduction of oxygen with water (H2O) which produced the OH-ion. So the final product formed is Al (OH) 3 or aluminum hydroxide which takes the form of a solid white. The electrolyte is a solution of a widely-used bases including potassium hydroxide (KOH) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The reaction occurs battery aluminum-air is shown by Figure 2.

Figure 2. The reaction occurs battery aluminum-air
Source: Mokhtar, Marliyana, dkk, 2015 [2]

In the year 2014, Alcoa (metal companies based in Canada) and Phinergy (a start-up company producing lihitum-ion batteries and metal-air to the electric car company based in Israel) did a new breakthrough by producing electric cars the use of aluminum-air battery. The distance is only capable of about 1600 km and was once the crossroads aluminum-air batteries should be replaced because batrai aluminum-air is the primary battery (recharged). For the crossroads, it takes 2500 alumunim-air cell batteries with battery total weight of 100 kg. The weight is still much lighter than the Tesla's car has a weight of 500 kg of lithium battery with the battery cell number as many as 7000 cell. Because of the reduction in the reaction requires water, car owners must charge the batteries aluminum-air with water when the had been 400 km as far as the crossroads. With an estimated daily mileage done, Alcoa aluminum-air battery estimates can be replaced once a year. Then, Al (OH) 3 is generated from the reaction of the battery can be returned to the manufacturer of the batteries to be recycled into metallic aluminium back. In Figure 3 is shown on the electric car that uses the aluminum-air battery cell 2500 and aluminum-air.

Figure 3. The electric car battery alumunim air and arrangement of aluminum-air battery cells [3]

Electric car trial was held at the Circuit Gilles-Villeneuve, Canada. Check out the video below:

 

Reference 

[1] Liu Yisi, Qian Sun, Li Wenzhang, Keegan r. Adair, Jie Li, and Xueliang Sun. 2017. A Comprehensive Review on Recent Progress in Aluminium-Air Batteries. University of Western Ontario.

[2] Mokhtar, Marliyana, Meor Zainal Meor Talib, Edy Herianto Majlan, Siti Masrinda Tasirin, Wan Muhammad Faris Ramli Wan, Wan Ramli Wan Daud, and Jaafar Sahari. 2015. Recent Developments in Materials For Aluminum-Air Batteries. University Kebangsaan Malaysia

[3] Mackenzie, Angus. 2014. Electric Test Car with the aluminum-Air Battery Takes to the Track. Taken from: https://newatlas.com/aluminium-air-battery-could-extend-ev-range-by-1000-km/32454/(October 15, 2017)

 

Read also the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) – From Bioetanol-fueled electric car to the power plant of household Scale

 

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