Scientific explanation on the case of Jennifer Dunn are hard to escape from bondage, Drugs

Since December 31, 2017, the infotainment Indonesia busy broadcasting the terciduknya artist named Jennifer Dunn or commonly called Jedun. Jedun Polda Metro Jaya picked up because of Drug case stumbled back. Before Jedun already entangled drug cases in 2005 at a time when the age Jedun is still 15 years, continued in 2009 when he was only 19 years old which resulted in the detention of bars up to 2012 [1].

This of course begs the question, why would someone who has caught the drug became very difficult to stop being a drug user? Even Jedunpun was unable to escape the Drug for 12 years.

To answer these questions, we first have to understand the communication mechanism of the parts of the brain. The brain regulates the basic functions of the human body, including the ability to interpret and respond to all the things we experience of forming thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Drugs certainly will attack the brain because it affects how humans thought to behave.

The mechanism of communication between parts of the brain

The human brain is the most complex organ and intricate.  The brain consists of billions of neurons or nerve cells. The network of neurons will be mengordinasi and organize everything we feel, think, and do. The network of neurons pass the message (electrical and chemical signals) to toggle between the different structures in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves in other parts of the body (peripheral nervous system) through neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitter is received by receptors on neurons and causes the active neurons. When neurons are active, then the message will be received and forwarded on to other neurons based on the mechanism of "lock and key". A special mechanism will ensure that each receptor will receive and forward messages only after interacting with the right type of neurotransmitter [2].

To send messages, brain nerve cells (neurons) secrete a chemical (neurotransmitter) into space (Synapse) near other neurons. Neurotransmitters pass through Synapse and attaches on a protein (receptor).

Types of neurotransmitters varies according with the message that he brought, such as acetylcholine is involved in hearing and memory, dopamine is involved in feeling and emotion, serotonin is involved in hunger, and glutamate is involved in learning process [3].

How drugs work in the brain?

Drugs are chemicals that affect the brain by way of entering into the brain's communication system. Of course this would be disturbing how neurons in the send, receive, and process messages/information. Several types of drugs such as marijuana and heroin can activate neurons because their chemical structure mimics the neurotransmitter. The similarity in chemical structure that can "fool" receptors and allow drugs to stuck to the receptors and activate neurons. Although the drug mimics the original brain chemicals (neurotransmitters), drugs do not activate neurons in the same way as neurotransmitters. This causes the message wasn't delivered normally through a network of neurons. Other types of drugs such as amphetamines or cocaine can cause neuron releasing neurotransmitters a number of original abnormal amount (in excess amount). These disorders produce messages that are heavily reinforced, which ultimately disrupts the communication channels in the brain. Like happy overload (nge-fly), or hallucinations are also redundant (sakau).

How does the drug produces a sensation of pleasure and happiness?

Most of the drug abuse target recognition system in the brain is flooded with the lines of communication between neurons in the brain with dopamine. The term system of rewards (reward system) refers to a group of parts of the brain that can be activated by the stimulation (certain activities such as eating, worship, listen to music, etc.) or reinforcement (e.g. drugs) [4]. When exposed to stimuli that activate the reward system, neurons respond by increasing the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is on the part of the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and feeling happy. When enabled on a normal level, the system is rewarding our natural behaviour in the form of feeling excited and happy as after a meal, listen to music, worship, etc. The excess dopamine levels due to the drugs can produce euphoric effects or sensations of happiness and pleasure which there is no tara.

How excess dopamine stimulation teaches drug users to continue to do drugs?

Our brains are designed to ensure that we will repeat the activities that support the quality of life by linking these activities with pleasure and appreciation. Whenever recognition system is activated, the brain notes that there is something important to remember, and teach us to do it again and again without thinking about them. Because drug abuse stimulate the reward system, then the drug users will continue to "learn" to continue abusing drugs.

Why the award because the drug more addictive than on normal activities because of the award?

On drug abuse, drug users can release 2 to 10 times the amount of dopamine than on normal activities such as eating, listening to music, worship, sexual intercourse, etc. In some cases, at a time when drug sucked up or injected then the effects of happiness can last longer than that produced by normal activity. The effects of happiness that is so powerful it's very motivating people to do drugs again and again. This is why scientists sometimes say that the abuse of illegal drugs is something we can do very easily.

Most of the abuse narkiba to target the brain's reward systems with flooded lanes of communication in the brain by the neurotransmitter dopamine.

What happens to the brain drug user is if you continue to do drugs?

For the brain, the difference between normal activity and appreciation because appreciation because drugs can be described as the difference between someone who is whispering into your ear and someone shouted through a microphone. Just like when we lower the volume of music being too loud, then the brain adjust to excessive dopamine surges by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of receptors that can receive the signal. As a result, without do drugs then dopamine in drug users can be very low, and drug users ability to experience pleasure. This is why a drug users end up feeling her life seemed flat, lifeless, depression, and can not enjoy things before fun.

When all consume drugs, then that person will need to continue to do drugs again and again just to make dopaminnya levels back to normal. Of course this only makes the problem worse, becoming increasingly like a vicious circle. In addition, over time then the drug users will consume drugs in higher doses to produce more dopamine that is called with the effect of tolerance.

How to influence long-term drug abuse against the structure of the brain?

The level of tolerance of the neurotransmitters will continue to grow as the use of drugs, the consequences will ensue enormous changes in the network of neurons of the brain and potentially endanger the health of the brain permanently. For example, a different type of neurotransmitter called glutamate. Glutamate affects recognition system and the ability to learn. When the optimal concentration of glutamate transformed by drug abuse, brain tried to compensate for this change that can lead to a decline in cognitive function. Cognitive function is composed of the elements noticed (attention), given the (memory), understand the talk/communicate (language), moving (motor) and plan/implement the decisions of the (Executive). Long-term drug abuse can trigger the process of "learning" on the system memory unconsciously. When drug users activities or have certain conditions before you do drugs e.g. due to heavy stress then do drugs, then the process of "learning" will happen unconsciously. Is the learning process is a system memory will automatically remember activities/specific conditions before consuming drugs. The impact of the learning process will be the trigger to do drugs although it has ceased to do drugs. Reflex "learned" it will survive is very durable and can affect anyone who has ever used drugs even after many years no longer do drugs.

Moreover, changes in the brain that occur because of drug abuse?

Pemaiakan drugs on an ongoing basis can cause increase in tolerance or need a higher dose of a drug to produce an effect similar to that of happiness. It can also cause an addiction that can encourage users to seek out and consume the drug in compulsive (an action usually performed repeatedly to reduce anxiety). Drug addiction can erode one's self control and ability to make the right decision, as well as generating an intense urge to continue to consume drugs. So it's not surprising if Jedun still do drugs for 12 years, because it is very difficult for the scientific explanation of trapping drugs. However this does not mean impossible. With a will, an environment that is truly conducive to drug users, then it can escape from bondage, drugs such as for example is the late Jeffrey Al-Ustadz Buchori.  

Reference:

[1] the track record of Jennifer Dunn and Drug Cases, from the age of 15 Years is already familiar with NAZA. In Tribunnews.com retrieved 7 January 2017. [2] Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. In Drugabuse.gov retrieved 7 January 2017. [3] the Five Most common Neurotransmitters. In Quizlet.com retrieved 7 January 2017. [4] Know your brain: Reward system. In Neuroscientificallychallenged.com retrieved 7 January 2017.

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