A new step in the Observation of objects in the universe Through Gravitational Waves

The progress of a human civilization can be seen from the technologies that have been successfully developed. The more advanced the development of the technology, the more that can be known about the mysteries of unsolved murders in our universe are vast. The existence of technology that has successfully made making theories of physics ever written on paper is becoming increasingly evident and the solid foundation of its existence.

In the year 2017 in the Nobel Physics Award fell to three scientists as co-discoverers of the structure of the ripples in space-time of the universe known as Gravitational Waves (Gravitational Waves). The three of them was Rainer Weiss of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA), Kip Thorne of Caltech (California Institute of Technology) and Barry c. Barish who is also from Caltech. This success not only from them, but also of the scientists-scientists involved in collaboration on Instrument LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, USA) and VIRGO (Italy) during the research associated with it. The existence of Gravitational Waves first detected its presence on 14 September 2015 hours 09:50:45 UTC (Coordinated Universal Time) September 2015 by two detectors LIGO instruments [1.2].

Figure 1. Instrument LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory)

Source: http://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/gfx/news/hires/2017/1-ligoandvirgo.jpg

 

In 1916, the gravitational Wave existence had been dipredisksi by the famous physicist Albert Eintein via general relativity theory [2]. Gravitational Waves coming from a very large mass objects as two (2) black holes are spinning each other before joining each other then generate oscillations (ripple like waves of water), propagated in the universe with the speed of light in spacetime. This oscillation will be detected by the then LIGO Instruments with computation and simulation through the super computer would note the source of these oscillations. LIGO consisting of two L-shaped arm has two other arms which detectors installed in Livingston, Louisiana, and other arm attached at Hanford, Washington East [1].

Figure 2. Timeline of the development of the initial LIGO to Gravitational Wave detection of 14 September 2015

(Source: https://www.nsf.gov/mps/images/ligo_timeline_lg.jpg)

 

The source signal isolation first detected coming from a pair of black holes, each of which has a mass of about 30 times the mass of the Sun (the Sun of our solar system) is approximately 1.3 billion light years from Earth, this means the wave comes from 1.3 billion a year ago. The two black holes collide then coalesce into a black hole. The combined results of both of these black holes produce a storm surge of in space-time that lasts 20 milliseconds at once produces huge amounts of energy that is equivalent to 50 times the total power of all the stars in nature the universe. Interferometer in LIGO operates with laser light emitted simultaneously on both arms are perpendicular to each other, each to the extent of four (4) kilometers (2.5 miles) away, then a laser beam reflected back into the block divisor and will return in the same time. Gravitational waves are detected based on the time difference of distance traveled by this laser beam, the difference was caused when a passing wave and then distort the space-time [3].

Then LIGO Instruments is also reinforced by the Virgo detector Instrument located in Pisa, Italy. The second collaboration detector has detected the gravitational wave a jointly merger of two black holes. The oscillation signal was observed on August 14, 2017 that comes from the merger of two black holes 30.5 times solar mass black hole with another 25.3 times the mass of the Sun. The events of this merger occurred 540 megaparsecs or about 1.8 billion light years away from Earth. Because at the time of detecting gravitational waves involves three detectors at the same time, researchers have been able to narrow down the location of the source of the signal by a factor of almost 20 times faster compared to the previous detection using LIGO [ 4].

The detectors LIGO and Virgo can be used not only to detect the merger of black holes only but can also be used to detect the merger of neutron stars. The theory States that when two neutron stars collide they will generate waves of gravity and gamma ray, along with it also generates cosmic jet (the energy released sped extremely fast and its energy is very strong) that emitted in electromagnetic sepktrum [5].

This success changed the history of mankind in finding out keberadaaan a difficult objects detected in the universe, particularly the objects that do not emit light (dark) is still a mystery but have very large masses like the black hole [1]. From the detection of gravitational waves will also offer insights to us about how the universe evolved. Gravitational wave research is also possible to disclose the nature of the dark matter that have not been elucidated by science about its existence in the universe [6].

 

Baca juga:

Reference:

  1. Ed Daw. 2017. "The Scientists behind the discovery of gravitational waves to win the Nobel Prize for Physics 2017". PhysOrg, October 3, 2017 (https://phys.org/news/2017-10-scientists-discovery-gravitational-nobel-prize.html) accessed on December 1, 2017
  2. P. Abbott et al. 2016. "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Mergers." Physical Review Letters, the American Physical Society, February 12, 2016. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett. 116.061102
  3. Jaquith, Todd. 2016. "A New Era in Physics: Gravitational Waves Finally Detected". Futurism, February 11, 2016 (https://futurism.com/new-era-physics-gravitational-waves-finally-detected/) retrieved on December 3, 2017
  4. Voss, David. 2017. "Virgo Joins LIGO in Detection of Gravitational Waves". American Physical Society News, September 27, 2017 (https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/updates/ligo-virgo.cfm) retrieved on December 3, 2017
  5. Chu, Jennifer. 2017. "LIGO and Virgo make the first detection of gravitational waves produced by colliding neutron stars". MIT News, 16 October 2017 (http://news.mit.edu/2017/ligo-virgo-first-detection-gravitational-waves-colliding-neutron-stars-1016) retrieved on December 3, 2017
  6. BERGAN, Brad and Karla Lant. 2017. "Next Week, Scientists Will Finally Disclose Key Details About Gravitational Waves". Futurism, 11 October 2017 (https://futurism.com/next-week-scientists-will-finally-disclose-key-details-about-gravitational-waves/) retrieved on December 3, 2017

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