Water is the most important component to life. The needs of water in the body is very large, as almost 60% of the adult human body is composed of water. Given the importance of water for the body then it is advisable to drink 8 cups/2 liters of each hari1. But the amount of clean water from time to time depleting. It has been a lot of research and projects undertaken to address those problems, one of them with harvesting water from udara1, 2.
Water in the air are generally in the form of fog and clouds. Fog is a collection of drops-very small water drops that are floating around in the air. Mist similar to cloud, the difference is the cloud does not touch the surface of the Earth, while the fog touches the surface of the Earth. At a temperature of 30 ºc of water vapor contained in the air as many as 30 gr/m3. Therefore, the water vapor in the fog can be utilized as a source of water alternatif3.
Read also: sea water and Wastewater purified within 2.5 minutes
To harvest water from the air, there are two ways i.e. simply or conventional and modern technology:
- Traditional or conventional
To harvest water from the fog turned out not as complicated as imagined, the tools used to resemble a large net. With a mast as high as 4 meters, a width of 8 metres, and nets made of woven plastic which is then connected to the pipes directly to a small or large containers. But of course that's worthy of note is the water could only be harvested from the natural fog instead of fog because of the smoke. The principle of this tool is to capture the grain-grain water contained in the fog and the water flow into the storage tube is already disiapkan3. The following description of the taking of water from the air using a net:
The process of tailoring the net before it is ready to use (source: www. Equatorial. com) examples of Water from Fog-catcher Nets (source: www. Equatorial. com) architecture tool water harvesters from the air, source: www. warkawater. org of the community working together to create a water harvesting from conventional air source, www. warkawater. org public can enjoy water that had been harvested, really solutif in addressing the difficulty of clean water. Source: www. warkawater. org here's a video of the process of harvesting water from the air that is done conventionally.
- In modern technology
Retrieval of water vapor in the air can also be done with the latest technology that is inspired from the Namib desert Beetle, cacti, and Pitcher4 Plants. Scientists create a material with a surface that can be menjerap the water. The principle is simple that is by condensation of water vapor, but the condensation done far more effectively than conventional methods. Working mechanism on the surface of the material with mengkondensasikan water droplets or by process of shielding (isolation), but there is no natural materials that work with both of these mechanisms.
Researchers at Harvard University, led by Joanna Aizenberg and Kyoo-Chul Park, confirming that they can produce a synthetic surface material combines the two mechanisms work, condensation and shielding. The researchers created a surface with asymmetric sized Mound millimeters. Mound modeled based on observation of the Namib desert beetle. Bumps or lumps on the beetle help insect collecting water on the arid desert climate conditions. The Harvard research team trying to make and also studied the Cactus spines keasimetrisan efficient in water transport. On the other hand, the researchers also took lessons from the pitcher plant molecular smooth surfaces so inspiration to coat the surface of the mound (nanocoating) well with oil or polidimetilsiloksan so that water droplets move faster . The combination of these three natural systems will enhance the ability of a material in the process of harvesting water from the udara4.
The Harvard research team showed that the improvement of the properties of a material can be done with a natural structure of a complex approach, where we can combine some traits of species of sentient hiduo to design a very specific material efficiently. The method of observation of nature (biomimetic) or inspired from nature is very prospective in developing effective and efficient technologies. The Harvard research team using the aluminum surface modification for tryout. In addition, they also use a polymer material and the conductor. In principle any material can be used as ingredients. Refer to the following: condensation system video
Other technologies to harvest water i.e. with Dutch Rainmaker (DRM) 3. To move the machine work of harvesting water from the air, wind energy is used, so it does not add any burden to the needs of electrical energy derived from fossil. Despite the size of the windmills used relatively small (10-20 times smaller than the average windmill in the Netherlands), in its optimal condition of DRM + can produce 7,000 liters of water/day.
The workings of the technology is relatively simple. Wind turbine drives the heat pump that is used to cool air flowing in. Cooling reduces the air's ability to retain water, so that the excess water in the air eventually solidified and becomes water points; similar to the process of the occurrence of rain. The ' water ' was thus extracted is accommodated in a compartment storage for later use. The volume of water produced will be different in each area, depending on the temperature and humidity of the local environment. As an illustration, 1 kg of air with a temperature of 30 ° C and relative humidity (RH-Relative Humidity) 50%, contains 7 grams of water (0.7%), while a temperature of 20 ° C and RH 50% contains almost 14 grams water (1.4%).
DRM technologies are best used in areas with high humiditas (RH 50%) and temperature > 20-40oC. Located on the equator, the air in Indonesia is generally humid, with average RH ranged from 70-90%, and the average temperature of 20oC >. This condition is different in every province in Indonesia and is relatively constant throughout the years due to changes that occur following the season not too large. With these conditions, the tool is suitable to DRM applied Indonesia1, 3.
So far, DRM has been applied in the city of Leeuwarden Netherlands and Um Al Himam Kuwait. Both places have topography and climate that is very berbeda3. The application of DRM in both places the successful yield abundant water. Without needing to be connected with the network of energy and/or existing water infrastructure, DRM can be built right in areas that lack clean water. Nor need to build network installation and water transport are expensive and complicated, so, it would be very useful for remote areas.
DRM is also developing a system to menanen the water from the water (water to water). A heat pump that resulted from propeller-powered windmill, triggered a process of evaporating sea water/water polluting. As a result, pure water could be used for drinking, irrigation or sanitation. The following description of DRM tools:
Windmills and DRM (source: waterworld. com) Tool DRM (source: waterworld. com)
Other water harvesting technologies that are not less interesting is Fontus, created by design student named Kristof Retezar and won the James Dyson award Award3. Without the installation of large and complicated, very simple and practical Fontus, reserved for cyclists. This tool is simply mounted on the bike.Fontus mounted on bicycles to harvest water from the air. Source: businessinsider. com
The principle of work i.e. the cooling termoelektrik. Fontus can harvest the 0.5 L of water for an hour of cycling. In the middle there is a little cooler, Fontus element Peltier which are divided into two parts: the upper side lower side of cold and heat. This system of hot-cold working of the electrical energy produced solar panels on top of Fontus to create condensation and cooling air is hot and humid. When the bike is ridden, the air will go on downstairs and soothing the hot part. Furthermore, the air goes into the room up and the flow slowed with small walls thus providing an opportunity for air to release the water molecules. The points of the water then flows into the bottle are mounted vertically. All types of PET plastic bottle size 0.5 L can digunakan3. Check out the video explanation of FONTUS:
Read also: Elektrodialisis absorbers, Amazing Breakthroughs in the Processing of seawater Into Drinking Water Ready
- -Ansari. M. 2013. Identification Of Drought Disaster-Prone Areas By Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (Case Study: County Ground Herbs, South Kalimantan. Geodetic Studies Program working paper
- Laimeheriwa. An Analysis Of The Opportunities The Genesis Series Of The Day Dry During The Growing Season In The Town Of Ambon. Journal of Agrologia. 3 (2): 83-90.
- FOG AND HOW TO GET WATER FROM IT. At irwansyahalfarisi.blogspot.co.id and accessed on 19 January 2018.
- INSECTS AND PLANTS INSPIRED. At kedaisains.blogspot.co.id and accessed on 19 January 2018.
- Survival: Berbagai Cara untuk Memanen Air dari Udara - 27 Januari 2018
- Survival: different ways to harvest Water from the air - 27 Januari 2018