NANOTEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN : Dari Pupuk Nano Hingga Sensor Nano

Salah satu teknologi yang sangat berkembang saat ini adalah nanoteknologi. Teknologi dalam skala nano (ukurannya berkisar sepersemiliar meter) memungkinkan manusia menyusun atom demi atom untuk membentuk suatu material.  Kisaran ukuran material dalam skala nano yakni 1-100 nm. Sebagai perbandingannya, jika ukuran sebuah bola kasti berkisar 65 milimeter dan nanometer merupakan sepersejuta dari satu milimeter, maka untuk memperoleh bola tenis berukuran nano setara dengan membagi bola tenis tersebut ke dalam sepersejuta bagian!

Gambar 1. Perbandingan ukuran material nano dengan berbagai objek [1]

Nanoteknologi  kini telah diaplikasikan dalam berbagai bidang seperti IT, elektronik, kesehatan, pangan, hingga pertanian. Berbagai produk terkait nanoteknologi telah dikembangkan dan dikomersialkan. Khusus pada artikel ini, kita akan membahas apliaksi nanoteknologi dalam bidang pertanian.

  1. Pupuk Nano

Pupuk sebagai material utama di bidang pertanian terus mengalami peningkatan kualitas melalui berbagai riset. Di Indonesia, produksi pupuk dengan menggunakan teknologi nano telah dikembangkan oleh BPPT yang disebut sebagai pupuk lepas lambat atau SRF (Slow Release Fertilizer) [2]. Pembahasan lebih lanjut mengenai pupuk nano juga dapat dilihat pada artikel  warstek: Pupuk nano untuk masa depan[3].

Prinsip utama dari pupuk nano yaitu meningkatkan efisiensi pupuk melalui pengaturan pelepasan nutrisi sesuai dengan kebutuhan masing – masing tanaman. Daya serap tanaman terhadap pupuk dapat meningkat dikarenakan semakin kecil ukuran partikel pada pupuk, maka luas permukaan material pupuk tersebut semakin meningkat. Selain itu, pori – pori pada tanaman juga memiliki ukuran dalam skala nano sehingga ada kesesuaian antara ukuran partikel pupuk dengan pori pada tanaman. Penggunaan nanofertilizer juga dapat meminimalisir terjadinya leaching atau pencucian yang berpotensi menimbulkan pencemaran pada lingkungan [4].

Gambar 2. Beberapa Aplikasi Nanoteknologi di Bidang Pertanian [4]

  1. Pestisida Nano

Pestisida berbasis nanoteknologi juga telah dikembangkan dengan menggunakan Cu, SiO2, ZnO, dan TiO2 yang dibentuk menjadi partikel  nano besi-oksida. Partikel nano ini dapat melindungi tanaman dengan menghambat pertumbuhan patogen pada tanaman [5]. Sebagai contoh, penggunaan nano silika dapat membunuh serangga patogen tanaman apabila terserap ke dalam lapisan kutikula pada kulit serangga [4]. Hal ini dikarenakan sifat dari nano silika yang hidrofobik sehingga dapat dengan mudah menempel pada kulit serangga yang juga bersifat hidrofobik.

  1. Sensor Nano

Sensor nano sebagai salah satu teknologi nano yang berperan penting untuk mendeteksi dan memantau pertumbuhan tanaman, penyakit, toksisitas, kualitas tanah, serta mengontrol keseluruhan aspek keamanan dari tanaman budidaya tersebut [4],[5]. Sensor nano dibagi menjadi 2 bagian yakni elektrikal-sensor nano dan bio-sensor nano.

Salah satu model dari sensor nano ini yaitu sensor nano elektroda emas yang dimodifikasi dengan partikel nano tembaga. Sensor nano ini dapat mendeteksi serangan jamur patogen dengan menghitung total asam salisilat yang dihasilkan pada tanaman tersebut [6]. Asam salisilat merupakan salah satu senyawa yang dijadikan indikator dalam mengukur tingkat stress pada tanaman.

Baca juga:

Tabel 1. Beberapa partikel nano yang telah diaplikasikan sebagai sensor nano dalam pertanian [5]

Nah, ketiga poin di atas merupakan bagian dari aplikasi nanoteknologi untuk dunia pertanian.  Selain itu, masih banyak material nano maupun partikel nano lainnya yang sedang dikembangkan sebagai upaya untuk peningkatan mutu tanah dan juga mampu meningkatkan kemampuan tanaman agar dapat bertahan dalam cekaman lingkungan [4]. Tentu kita semua berharap agar penelitian mengenai nanoteknologi untuk bidang pertanian semakin dikembangkan, khususnya di Indonesia. Sebagai negara agraris, sudah seharusnya kita segera  berupaya untuk dapat menghasilkan produk pertanian berbasis nanoteknologi ini agar dapat diaplikasikan ke petani – petani Indonesia.

Referensi:

[1] Bloemen, M. 2015. Immunomagnetic separation of bacteria by iron oxide nanoparticles. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281278530_Immunomagnetic_separation_of_bacteria_by_iron_oxide_nanoparticles (diakses 2 Oktober 2019)

[2] BPPT. 2017. Inovasi Teknologi Pupuk Lepas Lambat (Slow Release Fertilizer, SRF). https://ptseik.bppt.go.id/berita-ptseik/14-inovasi-teknologi-pupuk-lepas-lambat-slow-release-fertilizer-srf (diakses 2 Oktober 2019)

[3] Izzah, N. 2017. Pupuk nano untuk masa depan. https://warstek.com/2017/06/12/pupuknano/ (diakses 2 Oktober 2019)

[4]  Shang, Y., Hasan, MK., Ahammed, GJ., Li, M., Yin, H., & Zhou, J. 2019. Applications of nanotechnology in plant growth and crop protection: A Review. Molecules 24 (2558): 1-23.

[5] Dubey, A. & Mailapalli, AR. 2016. Nanofertilisers, nanopesticides, nanosensors of pest and nanotoxicity in agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 19 : 307 – 330.

[6] Wang, Z., Wei, F., Liu, S.Y., Xu, Q., Huang, J.Y., Dong, X.Y., Yu, J.H., Yang, Q., Zhao, Y.D., Chen, H. 2010. Electrocatalytic oxidation of phytohormone salicylic acid at copper nanoparticles-modified gold electrode and its detection in oilseed rape infected with fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Talanta 80: 1277–1281.

Liza Aulia Yusfi
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