Disclosing the Risk of Cancer due to Pollution, Researchers Sentenced to Prison

Disclosing the Risk of Cancer due to Pollution, Researchers Sentenced to Prison

Turkish court sentenced a researcher for disclosing research results related to the risk of cancer due to toxic pollution. The court in Istanbul on Thursday (9/26/2019) sentenced 15 researchers to prison sentences named Dr. Bulent Sik. Dr. Sik was found guilty of “leaking classified information” to a Turkish newspaper called “Cumhuriyet” last year.

Dr. Bulent Sik and Cumhuriyet Newspaper

Pollution from the Industrial Innovation zone, about 80 kilometers from Istanbul and home to many chemical and metallurgical factories, was chosen in a report written by Dr. Sik because it was considered to have a cancer risk level far above the international average.

“This research clearly reveals the extent to which water resources have been contaminated by toxic materials,” Dr Sik told reporters after reading the court’s verdict. “But the court’s decision shows that the results of research directly relating to public health can be hidden. This is not acceptable, “he added.

Research conducted by Dr. Sik for the Ministry of Health also involved a number of other researchers. Dr. Sik and other scientists from 2011 to 2015 examined the relationship of toxicity in soil, water and food with high rates of cancer in several provinces in western Turkey.

The court’s ruling drew criticism from human rights activist groups. Amnesty International considers the government’s attitude towards the findings that prompted Dr. Sik acted alone to inform the public of the risk of the cancer. According to the group, Sik decided to talk to the media after realizing the government did nothing about the findings, the relationship of pollution to cancer.

“Instead of suppressing the discovery and demanding that Dr. Sik, the Ministry of Health and the authorities should take the necessary actions needed to prevent environmental pollution and protect public health, “said Amnesty International Turkey campaigner Milena Buyum. Amnesty International also said that Dr Sik would be a prisoner of conscience if he was jailed.

Rights groups and environmental activists accuse the government of failing to enforce environmental regulations amid a rapid industrial boom in many regions of Turkey. Now Dr. Sik is not a prisoner yet. He is still free until Thursday 3 October 2019 while awaiting the results of the appeals court.

Also read: Knowing Pactamycin and Its Development: The Diaspora Scientists’ Fight Against Malaria

Reference:

  1. https://www.cnnindonesia.com/international/20190927193254-134-434785/ researcher-dihukum-karena- revealed-risiko-kanker-kibat-pollution accessed on 28 September 2019.
  2. https://banjarmasin.tribunnews.com/2019/09/27/ revealed-results-research-pollution-toxic-tattering-risiko-kanker-ilmuwan-turki-d jailed accessed on 28 September 2019.

Like a Ninja, this medicine can eradicate tumors quietly

Like a Ninja, this medicine can eradicate tumors quietly

Tumors, Source: Medical News Today

Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. The mastermind behind this deadly disease is none other than a tumor [3] . During this time, the tumor was eradicated by chemotherapy in a “blunt”. However, as we know, tumors are living things, which certainly have an instinct to avoid danger. In addition, the current chemotherapy treatment system can also harm other cells in the body [2] . Then how to overcome it? On July 18, 2019, a recent study published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS) revealed the latest chemotherapy drug transfer method, which uses “ninja”.

Ninja? Actually ninja is not the right word to describe the working system of this drug. This drug works more precisely like a Trojan Horse virus on your computer. According to Nathan Gianneschi, the leader of research on this drug, revealed that this drug can deliver chemotherapy so that it can be consumed directly by the tumor, without being known by the tumor itself [1] .

Drug description found by the Research Team from Northwestern University, Source: Northwestern Now

How to? Reporting from Northwestern Now, Gianneschi and his team engineered long-chain fatty acids at two binding sites at each end. These fatty acids and drugs are then hidden in human serum albumin (HSA), which carries molecules, including fat, throughout the body. Furthermore, the body’s cellular receptors will recognize this drug as fat supplied by HSA and allow this drug to enter. Tumors that grow fast and are hungry will consume nutrients far more quickly than normal cells, so this drug has the opportunity to be consumed by tumors. When a tumor metabolizes this drug, the drug will be active and will kill the tumor [1] .

ODDA PTX, a drug discovered by a group of scientists from Northwestern University: a) Chemical structure of ODDA PTX, b) 3D depiction of ODDA PTX, c) ODDA PTX combined with fat, Source: Callmann, 2019.

Did the system work? The team from Northwestern University has conducted trials on this drug. The results of these trials indicate that the drug successfully entered and removed tumors in three types of cancer, namely bone cancer, pancreatic cancer, and cancer in the large intestine in small animals. In fact, the trial also showed that this drug is 17 times safer than previous treatments [2] .

It is not yet known exactly when this drug can be mass produced, but this discovery is an amazing discovery. Be prepared for the treatment of the next generation of cancer with maximum results and low risk of treatment.

Source:

[1] Amanda Norris. 2019. Trojan horse ‘anticancer drug disguises itself as fat: Promising the system delivers chemo drugs straight into tumors with fewer side effects. Accessed July 20, 2019 at: https://news.northwestern.edu/stories/2019/07/trojan-horse-anticancer-drug-delivery-disguises-itself-as-fat/

[2] Callmann, Cassandra E., Nathan C. Gianneschi, et al. 2019.  Antitumor Activity of 1,18-Octadecanedioic Acid-Paclitaxel Complexed with Human Serum Albumin . Journal of the American Chemical Society.

[3] World Health Organization. 2018. Cancer . Accessed on July 28, 2019 at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cancer

How to write a research paper?

How to write a research paper?

“How to write a research paper?” I began to think about this question broadly and deeply when I got to know the campus world. Although since high school he has known it in the form of Scientific Writing. When on campus, of course we often deal with this one task. The task of writing which in the end becomes our initial provision in completing the final project to contribute to the development of science. However, in the end the research paper will not mean anything if it is not published or disseminated. One place to publish research papers is a journal.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019, I attended the workshop conducted by Dr. Yogi Wibisono Budhi in the ” World Class Professor ” program at the Bandung Institute of Technology. The speaker who was presented in this program was Dr. Manabu Miyamoto, he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, Gifu University . One of the topics presented was the procedure for writing research papers to be published. Dr. Manabu Miyamoto, whose name has a meaning in accordance with his profession as a professor, is a reviewer for> 20 reputable international journals.

He opened the session by introducing himself and his track record in the world of higher education, then continued by discussing an outline of the procedure for publishing research papers which can be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Procedure for publishing scientific articles

It seems easy and short huh. But the fact is not that simple. Based on the story of Dr. Manabu Miyamoto as a reviewer who has a lot of experience in correcting rejecting research papers, there are some things that must be considered so that the manuscript is accepted by reviewers .

Papers for Publication Purposes as Research and Patent Results

The results of research and patents are two different things, even though both outcomes are publications. The difference between the two can be seen in the following Table 1.

Table.1 Differences in Research and Patent Results

Table 1. Differences in scientific articles for the publication of Research Results and Patents

Initial Strategy for Publishing Research Papers

Dr. Manabu Miyamoto asked questions before raising further strategies for publishing research papers. The question is “What is the most important thing for publishing your research work in scientific journals?” / “What is the most important thing for publishing your research results in scientific journals?”

Immediately what I thought was ” Manuscript / script”, because in my opinion we cannot send a research paper if you do not have the script: D. Apparently, that’s not the answer. The most important thing is novelty / novelty.

“The most important thing for publishing your research work is in a scientific journal;

 1 st is Novelty

nd is Novelty

3rd rd is Novelty “

After getting an idea with an element of novelty, what is done is to look for research papers (and patents) in related fields. This method is done to ensure that your idea is really new. Make sure there are no scientific reports with similar ideas and also look at issues currently developing in your field.

Second, determine the initial steps and the final goal of the research you will do. You do this by creating a research framework. At this stage what needs to be understood is where you are at the moment, the problem your research subject is experiencing and the latest solution to the problem.

Third, complete the experiments that you will conduct to reach the final goal of the study.

Structure of Research Paper

After completing experiments and processing data until drawing conclusions, then writing a scientific paper can be started to be completed.

Figure 2. Writing Structure of Research Paper

Introduction /  introduction . This section must be clear, simple but include various aspects related to research. The contents of this section cover the background of general research, background of scientific research, issues / problems that are being resolved and the purpose of the research to be carried out.

Experiment Section / Experiment. This part must be clear, simple but easy for others to repeat. The contents of this section include details related to tools and materials, conditions in experiments, theoretical basis and mathematical equations. The thing that is no less important than this section is the picture.

“A picture is worth a thousand words”

Results and Discussion /  Results and Discussion. This part must be reasonable, consistent and easy to understand. The contents of this section must clarify what findings will be claimed by presenting evidence of research results. It is no less important than this section must be able to build logic to direct the reader to a conclusion.

” Your logic may be like a leaky bucket! once plug a leak, another leak may happent ”

Important things to consider in building logic in this section are:

a. Provide data clearly.

b. Present the correct arguments, because if the arguments in your logic are wrong, they can lead to wrong assumptions.

c. Avoid ambiguity, because ambiguity can lead to wrong arguments.

d. Make efforts to avoid ambiguity, by combining several results from various points of view and referring the results of previous studies to support the results of your research.

Conclusions / conclusions. This section must be clear, simple and display your findings.

“Tip: Review your logic objectively, critism against, and be independent”

Based on the explanation of the structure of scientific papers above, the conclusions we can draw include:

a. Make all parts clear and simple.

b. Prepare simple images that are interesting and easy to understand.

c. Use quotations / references in the discussion.

d. Avoid repetition in presenting each part.

e. Re-read your scientific paper carefully before sending.

Happy reading and trying to write a research paper. Hopefully this article is useful.

Reference:

All contents in this article are the author’s free translation of the public lecture delivered by Dr. Manabu Miyamoto.

Introduction to Stem Cells

Introduction to Stem Cells

Recently a lot of circulating in Indonesia about stem cell therapy to overcome a disease. But what exactly are stem cells and are they special compared to other cells that make up our bodies?

The human body consists of various types of cells such as muscle cells, nerve cells and heart cells. Each type of cell has a different function and shape. All types of cells that make up our bodies can experience aging and then die and must be replaced. The type of cell that is responsible for replacing the cells that make up our body is called a stem cell . Stem cells have a special ability compared to other cells that are able to multiply themselves and have not differentiated. Unlike muscle cells that function in the system of movement of the body, stem cel l have not terprogam into any cell type in the future. It can be assumed like a child who does not know what he will become when he grows up. The ability of stem cells This unique feature is often used to be directed to a special environment so that it can turn into cells that we want so that it can be used to replace damaged cells or tissue.

Figure 1. Stem Cell Characters [1]

Stem cells can be found in several parts of the human body. Based on its differentiation ability, stem cells can be classified into pluripotent and multipotent. Cells that have pluripotent ability can develop into all types of cells that make up the body except the placenta. Examples stem pluripotent cell is a stem cell embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC). Embryonal stem cells originate from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, which is the embryonic phase which is 4 days after fertilization [2]. In humans, stem cellsembryonal can be obtained from embryos that are “no longer used” in technology in vitro fertilization (IVF). Although the ability of embryonic stem cells is amazing, the use of embryonic stem cells both in research and therapy has a major obstacle, namely ethical issues. Until now there is still much debate about the ethics of using this type of stem cell so that many countries have banned the use of embryonal stem cells.

iPSC is the newest type of stem cell originating from adult cells that have differentiated and then made into stem cells again. The iPSC was first discovered by Yamanaka and was awarded the Nobel Prize for his discovery. Yamanaka makes stem cells from mouse skin cells by activating Yamanaka factors (Oct3 / 4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc) which are mostly activated in embryonal stem cells so that skin cells can have embryonal stem cell capabilities . Unlike embryonal stem cells , iPSC does not stumble many ethical issues so it is expected to be an alternative to using embryonic stem cells .

Stem cells which have multipotent properties means that they can differentiate into a number of cell types not as much as pluripotent. An example is a hematopoetic stem cell which is only able to differentiate into a type of blood cell only. In addition there are mesenchymal stem cells which can be found in various tissues such as fat, Wharton jelly (part of the umbilical cord) of the person giving birth, and from the spinal cord. These stem cells are widely used in research or therapy because they are easily available compared to other types of stem cells .

Stem cells are always identical to animal or human cells. Do plants have stem cells? Based on previous understanding of stem cells , plants also have stem cells. Stem cells in plants are found in meristem tissue, which is tissue in plants consisting of cells that are still young and have not differentiated. In contrast to stem cells in humans, stem cells in plants have totipotential properties that are able to differentiate into cells that make up all organisms. If we cut the meristem tissue and then grow in the appropriate media it can form all complete plant organs. Totipotential ability in humans is only owned by Zygot.

The development and use of stem cells in the health sector has been widely carried out. Stem cells can be used for retinal regeneration therapy [3]. Stem cells are also a source of cells in tissue engineering that are used as an alternative therapy for human prone tissue damage [4].

References:
[1] Kalra, K., & Tomar, P. (2014). Stem cells: basics, classification and applications. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 2 (7), 919-930.

[2] Zakrzewski, W., Dobrzyński, M., Szymonowicz, M., & Rybak, Z. (2019). Stem cells: past, present, and future. Stem cell research & therapy, 10 (1), 68.

[3] Oswald, J., & Baranov, P. (2018). Regenerative medicine in the retina: from stem cells to cell replacement therapy. Therapeutic advances in ophthalmology, 10, 2515841418774433.

[4] Wang, SZ, Chang, Q., Kong, XF, & Wang, C. (2015). The chondrogenic induction potential for bone marrow-derived stem cells between autologous platelet-rich plasma and common chondrogenic induction agents: a preliminary comparative study. Stem cells International, 2015.

Electronic Cigarettes (Vape) Killed 7 People, New York and California Banned The Electronic Cigarettes

Electronic Cigarettes (Vape) Killed 7 People, New York and California Banned The Electronic Cigarettes

After previously 6 people died from electronic cigarettes or popularly called Vape. The seventh person in the United States died of a mysterious vape-related lung disease on Monday 16 September 2019. Previously the 6th victim was a woman over 50 years old and had a history of health problems, became seriously ill shortly after using vape and her health deteriorating very quickly. It is not clear what type of vape product he uses, this is as stated by Kansas Health Department officials .

Since the death of the six vampires, the concern about vape safety and regulation has been increased. Unsparing, the three institutions in the United States the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or abbreviated CDC ), the Food and Drug Administration ( Food and Drug Administration ), and the Health Department of State ( State Health Departments ) intervene to investigate this plague. Officials at these institutions say that they have not found a definitive cause or clear connection between 7 cases of vape deaths, but there are several hypotheses that arise.
As a result of this death and a variety of mysterious diseases arising from vape, New York and California have banned the use of vapes that have had a taste since September 16, 2019. Media Esquire even predicts that this ban will soon be applied to all of America.

How many people are sick and who died?

As of this Tuesday, September 18, 2019, there have been more than 450 cases of lung disease related to vape use reported to the CDC. Before the seventh death in California (for the second time), six deaths were reported in California, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Oregon, and Kansas.
The first death from lung disease related to vape in the United States was reported in Illinois in August. People who die are adults. Oregon became the second place to report deaths  , then  Minnesota, Indiana and California . The sixth death, reported on September 10, 2019 is in Kansas  .

What has been found related to vape disease investigations?

Investigations of the three institutions previously described regarding the relationship between vape activity and severe lung disease are still being carried out and the results have not been released. However all reported cases have indicated vape use and some patients have reported using vape containing cannabinoid products, such as Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
New York health officials said that extremely high levels of vitamin E acetate were found in almost all vape products of death victims that were part of the investigation. Vitamin E ingredients are the ‘main focus’ in investigating vaping, CDC officials say.
Candy flavored vape

Candy flavored vape

Some products found to contain vitamin E acetate are candy-flavored vapes. New York Governor Andrew Cuomo immediately intervened and ordered the American health department to issue subpoenas to three companies that market thickening chemicals for companies that produce vape liquid. In the future more companies will be investigated. The Health Center in New York obtained thickener samples from the three companies and determined that the thickener composition was almost 100% vitamin E acetate oil.

What did the doctor say?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (abbreviated as CDC ) says vape should not be used by teenagers, young adults, pregnant women, or adults who do not currently use tobacco products.
While an investigation into the epidemic of lung disease due to vape is still ongoing, people should consider not using vape products. Vape users should monitor themselves and immediately report it to the nearest hospital if symptoms appear related to the lungs. .
Teenage vaping continues to increase while drug use decreases, according to the survey

An appeal not to use electronic cigarettes until the investigation is over

“It’s time to stop using Vape,” Dr. Lee Norman, secretary of the Kansas Department of Health and the Environment after announcing the victim’s sixth death due to vape.
“If you or a loved one uses vape, please stop. Deaths and hundreds of cases of lung injury can continue to increase. I am very concerned about the health and safety of Kansas residents who use vape products and urge them to stop until we can determine the relationship between vape, lung injury and death, “Norman continued.
Previously, the lung health association in the United States warned that vape is not safe and can cause damage and lung disease that cannot be cured.
“No one can use vape or other tobacco products. This message is even more urgent today following increasing reports of vape-related diseases and deaths nationwide in America, “said Harold Wimmer, the association’s leader.
“The American medical association recommends anyone who has recently used vape products to seek immediate medical treatment if they experience adverse health effects, especially coughing, shortness of breath or chest pain,” Dr. Patrice Harris, president of the association.
“We urge the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to accelerate the regulation of electronic cigarettes and remove all unregulated products from the market,” Harris added. “We also ask the FDA to immediately ban taste, as well as marketing practices, which increase the attractiveness of vape products to young people.”
How about in Indonesia?
While this investigation is ongoing, Warstek urges Indonesian people not to use electronic cigarettes or vape.
Reference:
1. New York Just Banned Flavored Vapes. Is All of America Next? . Adapted from Esquire . Accessed September 18, 2019.
2. TERRIFYING VAPE DISEASE HAS NOW KILLED FIVE PEOPLE. Adapted from Futurism . Accessed September 13, 2019.
3. A sixth person edited from vaping-related lung disease. Here’s what you need to know. Adapted from CNN . Accessed September 13, 2019.
4. A 7th person has edited from vaping-related causes. The CDC is stepping up its probe of e-cigarette illnesses. Adapted from CNN . Accessed September 18, 2019.