Hywind Scotland: Floating Wind power plant, the first in the world

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The potential of renewable energy in some countries started to be utilized optimally. China, USA and India is the country's most cutting-edge in utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind, and water. In addition to these three countries, European countries such as the United Kingdom (the UK includes four countries namely United Kingdom, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland), Germany and the Netherlands took part in a race to increase the use of renewable energy as an energy source electricity. In the report "Wind Energy in Europe: Outlook to 2020", European countries are planning to build a wind power plant on land (onshore) and offshore (offshore). The total installed power generation capacity of wind power in Germany until the year 2017 is 2.9 Gigawatt (GW) consisting of 2.3 GW GW 0.6 on land and offshore. The UK ranks second with a total installed capacity of 1.7 GW consisting of 1.2 GW on land and 0.5 GW of offshore [1].

Figure 1. The construction of a wind power plant in Europe [1]

In October 2017, the origin of the oil company Statoil, Norway, teamed up with Masdar (Uae companies) have built floating wind power plant, the first in the world. The power plant is located in the North Sea (North Sea) of Scotland, which is 15 miles from the coast of Petershead. This wind turbine development project called Hywind Scotland. A floating wind turbine development takes a long time and the confidence of various parties to prove that these turbines can work optimally.

In 2001, the engineers began to pour their ideas to make a floating wind turbine. To test their idea, then in 2009 they started making a floating wind turbine prototypes being tested off the coast of Norway Karmoy [2]. The capacity of 2.3 MW prototype with a long blade 85 meters. In the year 2015, the Scottish Government support and fund projects a floating wind turbine developed by Statoil company that will stand resplendent in the Ocean North of Scotland. The average wind speed in the North Sea is 10 m/s and 1.8 metre high waves [3].

Figure 2. (a) the location of the Hywind Scotland [4] (b) Illustration Hywind Scotland which has a total height of 253 m [3] (c) the design of a floating wind turbine [3]

Hywind Scotland has 5 pieces of turbines with a capacity of each of the 6 MW turbine so that the total installed capacity of 30 MW with a voltage of 30 kV transmission [3]. The weight of each wind turbine is 12,000 tons (12 million pounds). Turbine rotor diameter is 154 meters, the length of the bar 75 meters and total height of turbine 253 meters (78 meters below the sea level and 175 metres from sea level to the end of the bar) [5]. Hywind Scotland is supported by 15 anchor with each anchor has a height of 16 meters, a diameter of 5 meters and a weight of about 300 tons. Pole anchor and turbine connected by a chain with a length of 2.500 metres and weighs 1.200 tons. Hywind Scotland able to illuminate more than 20.000 houses in the region of the UK [5].

 

Figure 3. The development process of Hywind Scotland [3]

The funds needed to build the Hywind Scotland is 200 million pounds equivalent to 3.7 trillion rupiah [2]. To make wind turbines off the coast, the maximum allowed depth is 200 feet or about 61 meters. In addition, the pillar of the turbine should be planted in the seabed and must be able to withstand the waves of the sea so that the wind turbines stand sturdy. Hywind Scotland uses the concept of excellence which provide different than wind turbines are designed to be planted on the seabed. Statoil-owned floating wind turbine was built in depth of 255 feet or about 77 meters and Statoil explained that wind turbines can be installed at a depth of more than 2.600 feet or approximately 792 meters [2]. Hywind Scotland has several other advantages, namely the simple construction with a cheap manufacturing cost, resistance to extreme weather and the movement of optimal turbines.

Figure 4. Offshore wind energy potential of the world [3]

Offshore wind energy has huge potential. European countries have been building a wind farm off the coast with an installed capacity of 15 GW. Offshore wind energy potential of the world reach more than 100 GW [3]. Therefore, a floating wind turbine is expected to take 10% of the total potential. Statoil will illuminate the target of 12 million homes in the region of the UK in the year 2030. Furthermore, Statoil will develop technology Hywind in several countries such as Ireland, France, the USA and Japan.

Full Story of Hywind Scotland

Reference

[1] Nghiem, a., Mbistrova d., Fraile A and Remy t. 2017. Wind Energy in Europe: Outlook to 2020. Wind Europe [2] Gibbens, s. 2017. See The world's First Floating Wind Farm. https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/10/wind-farm-renewable-energy-scotland-video-spd/(retrieved January 19, 2018) [3] Statoil. 2017. Hywind – The world's Leading Offshore Wind Floatinf Solution. https://www.statoil.com/en/what-we-do/hywind-where-the-wind-takes-us.html (retrieved January 19, 2018) [4] Best, s. 2017. World's First Floating Wind Farm Starts Generating Electricity Off The Coast of Scotland. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-4991890/Nicola-Sturgeon-officially-open-world-s-floating-wind-farm.html (retrieved January 19, 2018). [5] Rogers, s. 2017. Scotland Officially Opens The world's First Ever Floating Wind Farm. https://interestingengineering.com/scotland-officially-opens-the-worlds-first-ever-floating-wind-farm (retrieved January 19, 2018)

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Scientific explanation on the case of Jennifer Dunn are hard to escape from bondage, Drugs

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Since December 31, 2017, the infotainment Indonesia busy broadcasting the terciduknya artist named Jennifer Dunn or commonly called Jedun. Jedun Polda Metro Jaya picked up because of Drug case stumbled back. Before Jedun already entangled drug cases in 2005 at a time when the age Jedun is still 15 years, continued in 2009 when he was only 19 years old which resulted in the detention of bars up to 2012 [1].

This of course begs the question, why would someone who has caught the drug became very difficult to stop being a drug user? Even Jedunpun was unable to escape the Drug for 12 years.

To answer these questions, we first have to understand the communication mechanism of the parts of the brain. The brain regulates the basic functions of the human body, including the ability to interpret and respond to all the things we experience of forming thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. Drugs certainly will attack the brain because it affects how humans thought to behave.

The mechanism of communication between parts of the brain

The human brain is the most complex organ and intricate.  The brain consists of billions of neurons or nerve cells. The network of neurons will be mengordinasi and organize everything we feel, think, and do. The network of neurons pass the message (electrical and chemical signals) to toggle between the different structures in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves in other parts of the body (peripheral nervous system) through neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitter is received by receptors on neurons and causes the active neurons. When neurons are active, then the message will be received and forwarded on to other neurons based on the mechanism of "lock and key". A special mechanism will ensure that each receptor will receive and forward messages only after interacting with the right type of neurotransmitter [2].

To send messages, brain nerve cells (neurons) secrete a chemical (neurotransmitter) into space (Synapse) near other neurons. Neurotransmitters pass through Synapse and attaches on a protein (receptor).

Types of neurotransmitters varies according with the message that he brought, such as acetylcholine is involved in hearing and memory, dopamine is involved in feeling and emotion, serotonin is involved in hunger, and glutamate is involved in learning process [3].

How drugs work in the brain?

Drugs are chemicals that affect the brain by way of entering into the brain's communication system. Of course this would be disturbing how neurons in the send, receive, and process messages/information. Several types of drugs such as marijuana and heroin can activate neurons because their chemical structure mimics the neurotransmitter. The similarity in chemical structure that can "fool" receptors and allow drugs to stuck to the receptors and activate neurons. Although the drug mimics the original brain chemicals (neurotransmitters), drugs do not activate neurons in the same way as neurotransmitters. This causes the message wasn't delivered normally through a network of neurons. Other types of drugs such as amphetamines or cocaine can cause neuron releasing neurotransmitters a number of original abnormal amount (in excess amount). These disorders produce messages that are heavily reinforced, which ultimately disrupts the communication channels in the brain. Like happy overload (nge-fly), or hallucinations are also redundant (sakau).

How does the drug produces a sensation of pleasure and happiness?

Most of the drug abuse target recognition system in the brain is flooded with the lines of communication between neurons in the brain with dopamine. The term system of rewards (reward system) refers to a group of parts of the brain that can be activated by the stimulation (certain activities such as eating, worship, listen to music, etc.) or reinforcement (e.g. drugs) [4]. When exposed to stimuli that activate the reward system, neurons respond by increasing the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is on the part of the brain that regulates movement, emotion, motivation, and feeling happy. When enabled on a normal level, the system is rewarding our natural behaviour in the form of feeling excited and happy as after a meal, listen to music, worship, etc. The excess dopamine levels due to the drugs can produce euphoric effects or sensations of happiness and pleasure which there is no tara.

How excess dopamine stimulation teaches drug users to continue to do drugs?

Our brains are designed to ensure that we will repeat the activities that support the quality of life by linking these activities with pleasure and appreciation. Whenever recognition system is activated, the brain notes that there is something important to remember, and teach us to do it again and again without thinking about them. Because drug abuse stimulate the reward system, then the drug users will continue to "learn" to continue abusing drugs.

Why the award because the drug more addictive than on normal activities because of the award?

On drug abuse, drug users can release 2 to 10 times the amount of dopamine than on normal activities such as eating, listening to music, worship, sexual intercourse, etc. In some cases, at a time when drug sucked up or injected then the effects of happiness can last longer than that produced by normal activity. The effects of happiness that is so powerful it's very motivating people to do drugs again and again. This is why scientists sometimes say that the abuse of illegal drugs is something we can do very easily.

Most of the abuse narkiba to target the brain's reward systems with flooded lanes of communication in the brain by the neurotransmitter dopamine.

What happens to the brain drug user is if you continue to do drugs?

For the brain, the difference between normal activity and appreciation because appreciation because drugs can be described as the difference between someone who is whispering into your ear and someone shouted through a microphone. Just like when we lower the volume of music being too loud, then the brain adjust to excessive dopamine surges by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number of receptors that can receive the signal. As a result, without do drugs then dopamine in drug users can be very low, and drug users ability to experience pleasure. This is why a drug users end up feeling her life seemed flat, lifeless, depression, and can not enjoy things before fun.

When all consume drugs, then that person will need to continue to do drugs again and again just to make dopaminnya levels back to normal. Of course this only makes the problem worse, becoming increasingly like a vicious circle. In addition, over time then the drug users will consume drugs in higher doses to produce more dopamine that is called with the effect of tolerance.

How to influence long-term drug abuse against the structure of the brain?

The level of tolerance of the neurotransmitters will continue to grow as the use of drugs, the consequences will ensue enormous changes in the network of neurons of the brain and potentially endanger the health of the brain permanently. For example, a different type of neurotransmitter called glutamate. Glutamate affects recognition system and the ability to learn. When the optimal concentration of glutamate transformed by drug abuse, brain tried to compensate for this change that can lead to a decline in cognitive function. Cognitive function is composed of the elements noticed (attention), given the (memory), understand the talk/communicate (language), moving (motor) and plan/implement the decisions of the (Executive). Long-term drug abuse can trigger the process of "learning" on the system memory unconsciously. When drug users activities or have certain conditions before you do drugs e.g. due to heavy stress then do drugs, then the process of "learning" will happen unconsciously. Is the learning process is a system memory will automatically remember activities/specific conditions before consuming drugs. The impact of the learning process will be the trigger to do drugs although it has ceased to do drugs. Reflex "learned" it will survive is very durable and can affect anyone who has ever used drugs even after many years no longer do drugs.

Moreover, changes in the brain that occur because of drug abuse?

Pemaiakan drugs on an ongoing basis can cause increase in tolerance or need a higher dose of a drug to produce an effect similar to that of happiness. It can also cause an addiction that can encourage users to seek out and consume the drug in compulsive (an action usually performed repeatedly to reduce anxiety). Drug addiction can erode one's self control and ability to make the right decision, as well as generating an intense urge to continue to consume drugs. So it's not surprising if Jedun still do drugs for 12 years, because it is very difficult for the scientific explanation of trapping drugs. However this does not mean impossible. With a will, an environment that is truly conducive to drug users, then it can escape from bondage, drugs such as for example is the late Jeffrey Al-Ustadz Buchori.  

Reference:

[1] the track record of Jennifer Dunn and Drug Cases, from the age of 15 Years is already familiar with NAZA. In Tribunnews.com retrieved 7 January 2017. [2] Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction. In Drugabuse.gov retrieved 7 January 2017. [3] the Five Most common Neurotransmitters. In Quizlet.com retrieved 7 January 2017. [4] Know your brain: Reward system. In Neuroscientificallychallenged.com retrieved 7 January 2017.

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Is It True That Nuclear Radiation Can Cause Infertility?

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Misconceptions about science and nuclear engineering Indonesia in a society already relatively acute. One of them is related to nuclear radiation, which in this case is the gamma radiation. As if in any dose of gamma radiation can cause infertility until genetic defect. To prove the statement, Warstek did a poll via Instagram story with the question "what is nuclear radiation can cause infertility?". Obtained data 254 people (82%) answered "Yes" and 57 people (18%) answered "no". When generalized, from 5 people then 4 people would state that nuclear can cause infertility and only 1 person that said no.

The results of the poll warstek in instastory @warstek_com with the question "what is nuclear radiation can cause infertility?"

The stereotype of the "cause of nuclear sterile" sounding quite often. To the extent that often circulated rumour that students should nuclear engineering prodi married in semester 5 because potentially barren. Whereas in fact the practical work done just dealing with the source of the radiation with a very low dose.

Concerns against nuclear radiation is not completely wrong. Menggeneralisir wrong is that nuclear radiation is not at all secure. In fact, every day humans are bombarded by nuclear radiation constantly, either from outer space to Earth, even from within the body. The average population of the Earth receive radiation dose of 2.4 mSv/year [1]. Even some fruit and vegetables turns emits nuclear radiation (K40), but in very low doses. Fruit and vegetable is banana, avocado, spinach, mushrooms, nuts, and all that is rich with potassium. [2] Figure 1. A typical annual background radiation dose (source: FOREIGN NATIONAL) [1]

As for the related grapevine that nuclear radiation can cause infertility, then the key is on the dose of radiation received the body, especially in the reproductive organs [3-4]. Dose tinggilah which increases the chances of infertility, about 250-350 mSv. That was only temporary, not permanent infertility [4-5]. It was only at a dose of radiation of 2000 mSv, then permanent infertility can occur [4].

What about for women? Radiation dose 3000 mSv could result in infertility in about 30% of women's young age, but can be up to 100% at the age of more than 40 years. The effect of radiation is indeed subject to age, considering the condition of the organ changes over increased old person [4].

Gonads is a part of the body's most vulnerable with gamma radiation [3]. The process of pemandulan in men occurs due to nuclear radiation inhibits sperm production in the gonads. The radiation dose is 150 mSv can decrease sperm production from the gonads. While up to 300 mSv dose, causing the sperm can not be produced (azoospermia), but these temporary nature. Azoospermia in the long-term even permanent can occur if the gonads receive radiation dose of more than 2000 mSv [4].

So, theoretically, nuclear radiation can make someone barren. It's just that, infertility occurs if and only if someone is exposed to very high doses of radiation than normal conditions, thousands of times higher than the annual background radiation dose received human and radiasinya concentrated on reproductive organs.

If someone simply pocketed the source of gamma radiation with a dose rate of 0.1 mSv per year, then up to tens of won't happen any year barrenness.

So did live near NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS at all can not make someone barren. The radiation given off NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS into the environment only 0.01 mSv/year [5-6]. Less than a thousandth of the dose is needed so that people could be barren. Factually, in fact people who work at NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS nobody ever barren due to the effects radiasinya. If that works in just safe from barrenness, let alone the outside?

The key to high radiation doses, need so that someone can be infertile due to nuclear radiation.

How are the chances people get exposed to radiation as high as that? There are several possibilities.

First, it is exposed to high doses of radiation from the explosion of a nuclear bomb. But there are opportunities if the person who got the radiation that was killed in advance due to acute radiation sickness [6].

Second, high-dose radiation affected from Chernobyl NUCLEAR POWER PLANT accident like. It's just that, more than likely due to thyroid cancer exposed terlepasnya iodine-131. Thyroid cancer is a type of cancer that is most easily cured.

Third, when undergoing radiotherapy, for example due to suffering from prostate cancer. The reproductive organs (gonads) are definitely exposed to the radiation dose is high, and could be affected by the temporary infertility. Some time later, the barrenness that will be lost and the reproductive organs function normally again. Unless a given radiation dose is too high, then there is a possibility of permanent infertility.

Fourth, if toying with the radiotherapy/x-rays/CT-scans are then memapari yourself with high doses of gamma radiation. Infertility is not just a possibility, but also acute radiation sickness which then leads to death.

Fifth, when swimming in the pools of nuclear fuel (nuclear fuel pool) and touch the tubes of nuclear fuel. But before you can touch the nuclear fuel tubes, chances are someone would have died first because it exposed the shot by security officers.

So, nuclear radiation is not just causing infertility. In low doses, nuclear radiation is not more harm on the karsinogeniknya than eating fried foods at the roadside. New nuclear radiation is dangerous and potentially cause infertility in very high doses, exceeding 200 mSv. Radiation doses as high as this can only be found in places be regulated strictly and inaccessible vain people. So, excessive concern that nuclear radiation in even low doses can cause infertility have absolutely no basis.

Why the myth of "nuclear cause barren" can be created and spread in Indonesia society?

(1) most likely comes from the myth that nuclear radiation can cause genetic defects inherited, then it grew wild up to venturing on infertility;

(2) no nuclear workers who experience infertility due to working in the nuclear field, even radiografer though. Infertility detected was due to radiotherapy in the medical field, which is the other possibilities of the origin of the growing issue of wild that any nuclear radiation in doses can make barren.

Reference

  1. World Nuclear Association. Nuclear Radiation and Health Effects, updated July 2016 (http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/safety-and-security/radiation-and-health/nuclear-radiation-and-health-effects.aspx), accessed January 4, 2018.
  2. 10 Common Food Natural Beradioaktif, January 2014. (bisakimia.com/2014/01/29/10-makanan-umum-alami-yang-beradioaktif/), diakses 7 Januari 2018.
  3. Amanda L. Ogilvy-Stuart, Stephen M. Shalet. 1993. Effect of Radiation on the Human Reproductive System. Environmental Health Perspectives Supplements 101 (Suppl. 2): 109-116.
  4. Mondjo. 2013. Proteksi Radiasi. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Teknik Nuklir, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
  5. Robert Hargraves. 2012. Thorium Energy Cheaper Than Coal. Hanover: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
  6. Wade Allison. 2009. Radiation And Reason. York: Wade Allison Publishing.
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