Lean into the wall Collapsed: the reality of Governance of forests of Riau

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Ko ateh no bepucuk (upward is not berpucuk) Ko under no beurek (down no veined/root)-Tongah tongah dilaik beetle (Middle dikorek beetle) Ko lauik tak dapek drink (sea nobody can drink) Ko dapek not eat daek (inland could not eat) foul (Betolu rotten spawn) Boanak dead (dead child) (Petatah petitih tribe of Sakai, Bengkalis Regency, Riau Province)

Piece of petatah petitih from the tribe of Sakai above gives a very deep meaning of the definition of environment. In the tradition of the Sakai community (County Bengkalis, Riau), the forest is so self. Sell forest land is customary or embarrassing behavior and condemned by the customs. If there are older nephew sells customary land, then the pledge is going to happen to her.

The oath is certainly a stark contrast when compared with current forest conditions. Environmental degradation increasingly massive and already "bersebab result" against the sustainability of the livelihood of the public. The wisdom that is formed as a delegation of intensive interaction with the community environment increasingly eroded due to negative influences, either from outside or from within. Conditions that plagued the tribe of Sakai equal to that experienced by various other tribes in Indonesia which has a connection with the environment, they lose the core life and marwah, i.e. "the jungle".  It used to be the forest for hunting in the true sense, but now the forest made a "hunting" all things for the sake of the interests of a handful of people.

In an interview in one of the national private television station, one of the officials of the corruption eradication Commission (KPK) stated that the polemic spatial and forestry that occurred in the province of Riau in Indonesia is a reflection of the overall . If the ibaratkan in the realm of research methodology, Riau Province is the main sample is able to delegate the entire population in Indonesia. Sad indeed, but it's been so many tears being shed, has poured so many resources, people resigned at the end of anger.

According to the network of Forest Rescue Riau (JIKALAHARI) [1], the process of deforestation and degradation of natural forests in Riau Province takes place very quickly. A period of 24 years (1982-2005), Riau Province already lost natural forest cover an area of 3.7 million hectares, with an average rate of loss of as much as 160 thousand hectares/year. Even the research results from the Aid Environment predict forest in Riau will be exhausted by the year 2032 [2]. The losses reversed those figures are certainly enormous, more so if it is associated with the disconnection of the various interactions in forest ecosystems.

So why is this happening? Where is our role? In the present context, the degradation that occurs no longer viewed the site, protected areas of the country did not escape from "looting". The author would like to initiate this answer by quoting the opinion of Kartodihardjo (2010) stating that the root causes of the problem of the destruction of forests in Indonesia is the uncertainty of the status of the forest area and forest managers in the weak level of tread/field [3].

The diversity of species in the forest turned out to be directly proportional to the diversity in management. The natural dimension of human dimension, with intertwined into complexity and dynamics management triggers. The uncertainty of the status of not referring to the status of district administration, but rather to the not yet optimal efforts "discernment" to the status itself.

Common, we tend to make an effort "comparable treatment", "prevention". Efforts "discernment" is thus done after the onset of degradation and inflicting casualties. As a result is too many resources that we have to spend effort "treatment".

Weak governance can be seen from the dynamics of actors involved, the dynamics of the individual bringing the consequences to the dynamics of the institution. In the context of forest governance, let us return musing on what was said by Peluso (2006) [4], "the ways and the reasons of occurrence of forest degradation, deforestation, depletion and gradually depend on how various interests which are not in line negotiated and disclosed. Form of disclosure claim for forests is dependent on a variety of political constraints and sosiokultural. Thus, the process requires analysis not only politik-ekonomi in the context of international relations, national, regional and local but also from the perspective of the co-star that is below or above ".

When we talk about the authority of the central policy areas, we cannot be detached from the autonomous regional hegemony or decentralization. The main reason behind the decentralization if seen from the aspect of governance is the existence of good intentions to carry out governmental fields closer to society, in everything. But in fact, decentralization has provided the realized space negotiations, some experts even termed the formation of "little Kings" in the area. In the context of Riau Province, there have been many officials of this area are languishing in bars because of the "forest".

Then, in the case of individuals the acting, whether all of them minded individuals "little Kings" like their friends who have been there in the bars? Not necessarily also, surely there is still capable of running the mandate with the sincere and single-minded solely in the interest of the people.

The author's experience interacting with various related parties of forestry in the province of Riau indicates that their mandate be minorities, thus hard pressed, and almost eroded. This is the province where the cheerleaders are more appreciated than the bertungkus lumus, when sincerity and purity of intention were interfered a conflict of interest for the sake of personal enjoyment.

They are desperate and almost lose sometimes surrendered against existing conditions, in accordance with the term bureaucrat trapped (trapped in the administrators) who presented by Fox and Staw in Kartodihardjo (2010), i.e. those who agree with improvements to the policy but join the hinder policy changes when facing the negative consequences for themselves, they seem to have no other choice, except to run his costume budget without regard to maximise effectiveness its benefits, because it is more "profitable" for him. Due to the terms of this policy, forestry in General contains the administrative bureaucracy and procedures rather than solutions to real problems in the field.

In the context of the relationship of regional centres, communication is not effective to cause the fact of "humanitarian" officials sets into each of the resulting policy. Feeling underappreciated, unbalanced his rights and obligations, and other fears have become a very strong external boosters.

Tepatlah used the parable of the writer, which is "leaning against the wall collapsed", where when the parties are expected to make changes for the good of doing precisely the opposite, even worsening.

What kind of solutions for the improvement of forest governance in future? Let's go back contemplating the task and function of each of us, in accordance with the mandate and recesses, both as workers in institutions, human consciousness as a whole. Various regulation already conceived with good intentions, the community as the main actors have started to have a place in it. Live how we are able to maintain purity and sincere intentions to do their best for the sake of sustainability of our forests. If consciousness is already embedded permanently in the US, of course we do not need to implement the suggestions of KH. Mustofa Bisri (Gus Mus) that in one of his lecture ever delivered that, "if Indonesia wants to change, each of the head must be removed, and replaced with a new head." Let's do it for a better Indonesia. Salam lestari.

Read also Acted Against the destruction of the forest: notes for Young Intellectuals  

Reference

[1] the rescue network of the forest. 2016. 14 years Against the monopoly of the ruler of the forest and land: records of Black Forest Governance and land in Riau since 2002 up to 2016. Pekanbaru.

[2] http://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/daerah/15/05/31/np7mso-pada-2023-hutan-di-riau-dan-jambi-habis

[3] Kartodihardjo, h. 2010. Reserved Tenurial, KPH and "The Trapped Administrators." News Tenure.

[4] Peluso, Nancy Lee. 2006. The forest is rich People Destitute: Mastery Resources and resistance in Java. Insist Press. Yogyakarta.

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The leader of the Reasoning and Ecologically-How can political leaders assume the role of Maintaining the sustainability of the natural

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The Political Year

The year 2017, 2018 and 2019 may be described as the year of the general election (elections). Three waves of organizing Democratic Party aims to equate the cycle of Electoral Districts (ELECTIONS) and the period of reign of the head region of se-Indonesia. Now we are in the stages of simultaneous ELECTIONS will be held in 2018 that 171 area, consisting of 17 provinces, 39 cities, and 115 counties. Certainly this is not the first experience we carry out direct ELECTIONS, and as usual, campaign-the campaign "colongan" delegated in the form of posters, billboards, banners, and others began to bloom is found, with some of the same characteristics, There is always a picture of the candidate to the position of dashing their version, smile, and the jargon of "keakuan".

Read also: the institutions Survey to Muster public opinion. Be careful, Don't want to're fooled!

Frenzied scene primaries often makes us forget the threat that could have been memupus our lives every moment of euphoria and the regional leadership of the candidate's smile is not perceived by our brothers and sisters who suffer ecological disaster, they should lost possessions, even lives. Land and forest fires (KARLAHUT), flooding, drought, pollution, waste and so on, as if unwilling to escape from our lives, they grow as the dynamics of the cumulative impact of human life, with symptoms that sometimes escape from the radar. So in the end, the efforts of curative nan wasteful of resources.

The ecological disaster is exacerbated by poor leadership of the region, especially the mental corruption, as ever delivered by Prof. Dr. t. Jacob (Professor of Anthropology University of Gajah Mada) that political turmoil, lack of legal certainty, these penegakannya are not upright-upright too, makes the thief (kleptokrat) bergentayangan in all walks of life, the line becomes a tragedy that he calls "the tragedy of the unitary State Kleptokratis" [1]. The latest example is relevant is that the case against the former Governor of Southeast Sulawesi, Nur Alam, who officially became prisoners of the corruption eradication Commission (KPK) for misuse of authority in awarding permits mining nickel in two County in Southeast Sulawesi. KPK suspect Nur Alam received the grant from the private parties in every mining licence issuing issued without following the applicable rules [2].

The Ecological Reason

Prof. Dr. Guido Kartodihardjo (Professor of forestry policy Institut Pertanian Bogor) in one of his scientific oration ever convey about the importance of the position of a way of thinking in tracing the causes of environmental issues and the SDA is happening During this time, because of the changes the Act fundamentally almost impossible can be done without changing ways of thinking [3]. I agree with the opinion, in the context of today, we can see an irony, how can I think that combined with the science and policy of the narrative has been widely misused to guarantee the interests of individuals and groups. In the end, the people who return have to suffer the consequences.

A way of thinking which set out the principles of ecological, or ecological reason, in any planning or execution of the development process is absolutely necessary. The biggest challenge is the emergence of situations dilematis about kontestasi economy and ecology, on the one hand we have to exhorting the development process, but on the other hand, environmental sustainability has been real sacrificed. A moderate leader with the necessary courage and integrity. Through his book entitled "Curse to Blessing", Prof. Rhenald Kasali, Ph.d. (Professor of management at the University of Indonesia) evocative of our awareness that strong leadership is able to bring the community on the concept of sustainable development. He exposed the natural resource curse phenomenon that occurs in areas or countries that are rich in natural resources, is characterized by the growth of their economy which does not semaju regions or countries which do not have natural resources. Even natural wealth belonging to bring the community in full conflict and living conditions are poor. As examples of areas that are rich in natural resources, such as coal producers in Kalimantan, or producing gold in Sulawesi and Papua, it is in a wave of poverty. Even though the barn areas energy, electricity unreliable conditions to continue burning for 24 hours.

Read also: the State and Science as in all his books, Prof. Rhenald Kasali, Ph.d always shows the best practices dressed with relevant theories. Books published by Mizan in the year 2016 revolves around how the District has become the Bojonegoro area poor in East Java turned into a region with the most rapid development. The changes that occur in Bojonegoro of the figure of an innovative leader. Bupati Bojonegoro, Suyoto (Kang Yoto) Bojonegoro, making potential can be maximized. For example, he set aside OIL & GAS income fund as a perennial for the education of future generations in Bojonegoro and improve the quality of human resources so that the forward could innovate Bojonegoro looking for a replacement for oil. Suyoto aware his area conditions. He also learned from other regions that were hit by "curse" due to its wealth of natural resources. According to him, as much as any natural resources must surely will one day run out also. Suyoto was also looking at countries poor in natural resources but can memakmurkan themselves. The countries in question are Singapore, South Korea, and Japan.

"Those countries have a consciousness-oriented advantages of competitiveness and productivity through a clean government, a disciplined society and industrialization dealt with professional people. Bottom line, there must be investment in human capital in the future, "said Suyoto [4].

In the global landscape, the United States (us) could be an example in the application of leadership with an ecological reason. Theodore Roosevelt was the first u.s. President who systematically fight for the leadership role of the President and the Administration in the management of the natural environment sustainably. He used the seat of the Presidency to bring about progressive conservation agenda in the management of the environment – especially the idea in the management of environmental resources efficiently for the sake of the public interest better than just personal gain [5]. He formed the Bureau of Reclamation and the Forest Service, setting aside millions of hectares of public land for the management and use of permanently by the Government (and also some national parks and wildlife refuges), and the fight for water resources management. This management model later became the dominant model of environmental management throughout the 20th century.

Another example we can see in the land of a neighbor, Singapore, in which increasing urbanisation has led to the loss of forest cover over the years. Although this is one of the bad impact of economic development around the world, the Government of Singapore has been conducting a conscious effort to reduce the severity of arising from depleted forest cover by planting trees, shrubs, and plants propagate to boost green coverage in the country. The origins of Singapore in greening movement can be traced to a tree-planting movement inaugurated in 1963 by the Prime Minister at that time, Lee Kuan Yew. He sees this as a means to differentiate Singapore with other cities and as a key aspect to attract investment. The annual tree-planting day has since become a calendar of events for political office holders in their respective areas. It is increasingly underlines the commitment of the official tree planting in the country as well as the recognition of the importance of the given tree.

To provide further input on the greening movement, a parks and Recreation Department was established as a statutory Board. The importance given to the environment can be seen in this step is to entrust a specialized agency to spearhead this movement with greater momentum. As part of the Agency's strategy, tropical trees with a fast growth rate and that can give the canopy are used to further enhance the green cover on top of the island in the shortest time possible. A tree in a garden variety has a characteristic rough type of sturdy and can last in a tropical climate for many years with minimum care [6].

Momentum

In the context of Indonesia, with the momentum of the elections is, at the moment in which the people proffered by a wide selection of ecological reason, the candidate can digugah and gave rise to a strong desire to make it happen. We are in desperate need of leaders who are committed and consistently against the resolution of environmental problems. Leaders that are able to accommodate the preferences of the communal harmony that wants to live, vertically or horizontally. Let's go back contemplating the task and function of each of us, in accordance with the recesses and speeches, both as employees of the profession, the more human consciousness as a whole. Various regulation already conceived with good intentions, the community as the main actors have started to have a place in it. Live how we are able to maintain purity and sincere intentions to do their best for the sake of our environmental sustainability. If consciousness is already embedded permanently in the US, of course we do not need to implement the suggestions of KH. Mustofa Bisri (Gus Mus) that in one of his lecture ever delivered a satire that "if Indonesia wants to change, each of the head must be removed, and replaced with a new head." Let's do it for a better Indonesia. Salam lestari.

Read also: know your science and technology HUMAN RESOURCES and Related Functional Position

Reference

[1] Jacob, t. 2004. The tragedy of unitary State Kleptokratis: notes in the Twilight. Yayasan Obor Indonesia. Jakarta.

[2] Kompas (2017/07/05)

[3] Kartodihardjo, h. 2016. Discourse and policy Institutions – Politics forest area: Browse Policy Studies and social movements in natural resources in Indonesia. Scientific oration Professor Faculty of forestry, Bogor agricultural University, February 13, 2016, the Auditorium Building moved Andi Hakim Nasoetion Bogor agricultural University.

[4] Kompas (2016/12/20)

[5] Hays, s. p. 1999.  Conservation And The Gospel Of Efficiency. University of Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh.

[6] the Hin, l. t. w., & Subramaniam, r. 2012. Government Initiatives to Provide Leadership in Environmental Management: The Singapore Experience. In d. r. Gallagher (ed.), Environmental Leadership: A Reference Handbook (1st ed., pp 140 – 147). SAGE Publishing. California.

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The Future Of Distributed Computing

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Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems, whereas distributed systems is a software system components are in the computer network, communicate and coordinate Chan's performance through the message forwarding [1]. Distributed computing is important for any system node komputasinya-node is connected by a network. Computing systems became part of the community.

Thirty years ago, almost all computer-based system built on a central computing units are accessed from the terminal with minimum resources. This changed with the dikenalkannya personal computers, and for the last twenty years we have seen a tremendous increase in the resources available on the client side. For several years, the computing power and the number of personal computers increased faster than a network connection, leading to a scenario where services are tied to the hardware of the client with limited communications capacity. For example, how packaged computer games a few years ago: applications installed on a personal computer and used as a stand-alone system.

During the last ten years, an important trend can be observed: the network connection has increased almost as fast as the computing power. The network connection is increased because the backbone infrastructure has gradually changed from voice telephony into data centric network, and from increased coverage and bandwidth available in the last kilometers. So, the application does not necessarily have to stand on its own and can benefit from the available network connections, e.g. for additional interaction (such as in online games) or for the extra computing power used in data centers. In other words, many applications can be used directly in the data centers and client machine only acts as a powerful set of terminals. So, we should quickly be able to find scenarios that resemble technology forty years ago but is now on the global Internet scale: available wherever and whenever using any terminal that a lot or a little. The advantages of the service developer's perspective is not only the removal of the initial investment in hardware that is needed to offer a service, but can also improve service and support thousands or millions of users. For developers, this service dramatically has reduced the threshold for development and inauguration of the services; resource planning, which traditionally has been a big part of the design of the system to cope with peak demand, now is not a major issue. In addition, high availability still provide services even though the network and computer failure, because it is something that is provided as part of the network infrastructure.

However, the infrastructure that supports the above services is now known in the extreme as complex distributed systems. The main problem is the infrastructure that must evolve with increasing use. It must be done while maintaining the image of a single computing engine that is increasingly powerful. The most effective way to do this is through the horizontal scaling with how to implement a service that uses a small set of computers that are relatively cheap. Instead of using one machine to the limits of his abilities and then, with high costs, replace it with a machine that is twice its electrical power, smaller engines can gradually added to the little group of that computer. A large group of computers will also give us a system that is tolerant of errors because of the small possibility that some computers malfunctioned simultaneously. Provides infrastructure that is scalable and fault tolerant of course is highly desirable.

We can classify the infrastructure that supports distributed computing into four parts. First, the Internet, in the broad sense is defined as the entire high level protocols, middleware, and applications built on top of a worldwide network that is implemented with the TCP/IP protocol family. Many essential services over these networks, e.g. the World Wide Web that is based on the HTTP protocol. Second, Mobile Computing, including mobile phones and other devices that are connected by a wireless network (e.g. GSM, Wifi, Bluetooth, Zigbee). Mobile Computing is part of the mobile telecommunications network which also contains extensive fixed network. Third, Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing, computing this is a paradigm of human-computer interaction komputasinya devices that become part of our daily environment. We may not know they are there, but they could affect our lives in depth.

An example of a (controversial) is an increase in video camera controller. Pervasive Computing devices are most often used as a network, and therefore form a bona fide distributed systems. Fourth, High performance computing, including infrastructure, Grid and Cloud that can be implemented on top of the Internet, computing clusters, multiprocessor, multicore computing and. Multicore computing has become the main part of the high-performance computing, because a high percentage of microprocessor consumer growth is multicore.

Read also: eight rules of parallel programming for Multicore

The entire infrastructure of the above strongly influenced the modern society. The most noticeable change is in Commerce, social interaction, information search, and mobility.

    Reference:

G. Coulouris while, j. Dollimore, t. Kindberg, g. Blair, Distributed Systems: Concepts and Design, 5th ed., Pearson Education, 2011.

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