Charm of Blue Flame and Natural Resources Potential of Mount Ijen in Indonesia

Charm of Blue Flame and Natural Resources Potential of Mount Ijen in Indonesia

Looking at nature with understanding is much more pleasing than just looking at its beauty  (Albert Heim, 1878)

Indonesia is a country with the largest number of active volcanoes that is 127 active volcanoes. However, only 69 volcanoes are monitored by seismic devices which constitute the minimum standard of volcano monitoring devices [1] .

Volcanoes provide a very horrific picture for the people. The eruption of Mount Merapi, Yogyakarta is one example of a terrible disaster from the existence of a volcano. However, volcanoes also provide abundant natural resources such as springs, minerals and of course a very beautiful scenery when we explore it.

One of the volcanoes that are warmly discussed is Mount Ijen. Mount Ijen is located in two districts, Banyuwangi and Bondowoso districts. The beauty and uniqueness of Ijen mountain attracts many local and international tourists. From Mount Ijen, we can see volcanoes like mountains and mountains Marapi mountain.

The height of Ijen mountain is 2,443 meters above sea level and at its peak is a crater filled with acidic liquids [2] . Mount Ijen was formed from an ancient Ijen mountain some 700,000 years ago in a shallow marine environment [3] . Then, the ancient Ijen volcano erupted and collapsed which produced the caldera lake. Due to the existence of the Blawan fracture, the caldera lake becomes dry which then leaves only the crater.

In addition, on the lips of the caldera formed 5 volcanoes one of which is Ijen mountain which is now being enjoyed by many people for tourism and in the middle of the crater formed 17 mountain children. Mount Ijen last erupted in 1999 [2] .

Figure 1. Ijen mountain formation process [3]

The most impressive phenomenon of Ijen volcano is the phenomenon of blue flame ( blue fire ) that only occurs in two places, the volcano in Iceland and Ijen volcano in Indonesia. This is an unusual phenomenon because volcanoes usually produce red lava and black smoke just like Mount Merapi or Mount Sinabung.

The blue flame of Ijen crater is always on all day but can only be seen at night. because during the day, the intensity of the sun (yellow) combined with the blue fire makes the blue flame we can not see clearly. The blue flame is generated from the reaction between sulfur / solid sulfur (S 8 ) with oxygen at temperatures above 300 o C which produces blue flame and SO 2 gas [4] . The reaction is as follows :

8 + 8 O 2   = 8 SO 2 (blue flame)

The sulfur solids in Ijen crater are formed by the reaction of H 2 S and SO 2 gas . Ijen crater produces SO 2 as much as 200 tons per day which potentially produces 100 tons / day of attacking solids [3] . H 2 S and SO 2 will be condensed first, then will react to produce sulfur and water solids (H 2 O). This natural phenomenon is adopted by several industries that produce H 2 S.

In industry, the reaction of the formation of sulfur solids of H 2 S and SO 2 is called the Claus process [5] . The reaction is as follows :

2H 2 S + SO 2    = 3/2 S 2 + 2 H 2 O

Because SO 2 and H 2 S gas are very dangerous for humans, tourists visiting the crater of ijen are required to use masks and do not come closer to the crater area.

In addition, after 12 noon, tourists are advised not to be on the top of the mountain ijen because wind causes SO 2 gas will lead to where ordinary tourists take pictures or sit back. Mount Ijen also presents the activities of the sulfur miners.

We can see firsthand how the process of sulfur mining in the volcano environment. In one mine, sulfur miners are able to carry 60 to 100 kg of sulfur. Every day, sulfur miners are able to do 2 times mining.

The condensation of H 2 S and SO 2 gas is flowed through a 50 – 150 m pipeline with a total of 100 fruits which will produce a yellow – brown thick liquid which is a sulfur solid [3] . One thing that concerns us is a kilogram of sulfur is only valued at Rp. 680 / kg [4] . Of course, the price is not worth the risk that miners face every day. To increase the income, the miners create sulfuric sulfur made solid into various shapes sold at a price of Rp. 5,000 – Rp. 30.000 / souvenir.

Figure 2. Blue flame at Ijen Crater [3] (b) formation of sulfur solids [3] (c) sulfur miners (private documents)

In addition to the utilization of sulfur, Ijen crater has an abundant water source. However, the spring on the ijen mountain that flows through the river banyuputih mixed with acidic liquids from the crater. The acidic fluid in the ijen crater has a very low pH value of 0.5 [3] . This is the main concern of local governments in managing natural resources to be utilized by surrounding communities.

Going forward, the government and other agencies will make the sprinkling of the springs channel and the acidic liquids so that only water from the springs flowing into the river. This river flow can also be utilized for micro hydro power plant (PLTMH) [3] .

Another potential is geothermal energy that has been explored by PT.Medco Cahaya Geothermal (MCG) since 2011. Eskplorasi is still carried out until May 2018. The potential of geothermal energy in 110mW of ijen mountain complex. PT MCG has signed a contract with PT. PLN for power purchase agreement for 30 years. The project will operate commercially in 2020 or 2021 [6] .

Nature presents a million wisdom to the human being that grows around it. Blessing, man lives in prosperity, prosperity and peace. It is appropriate, nature and humans to synergize and respect each other for survival on earth.

Blue Fire (Blue Fire) in Ijen Crater, Indonesia [7]


[1] People’s Mind. 2012. Indonesia Has 127 Active Volcanoes . ( ) accessed on March 2, 2018

[2] Wikipedia Indonesia. Mount Ijen. ( ) accessed on March 2, 2018

[3] Wirakusumah, AD, Murdohardono, D and Rosiani, D. 2018. Geowisata in Banyupaitih / Banyuputih Watershed Area, G.Ijen, East Java . High School of Energy and Minerals.

[4] Milley, J. 2018. The Mystery of Blue Lava and The Ijen Volcano Crater . ( ) accessed on 2 March 2018

[5] Sendt, K and Haynes, BS 2005. Role of The Direct Reaction H 2 S + SO 2 in The Homogenous Claus Reaction . J. Phys Chem A, 109, 8180-8186.

[6] Agustinus, M. 2017. Medco Pocket Extension of Geothermal Exploration in Ijen . ( ) accessed on March 2, 2018

[7] Grunewald, O. 2015.  Ijen Crater – Volcano with Glowing Blue Lava in Indonesia . ( accessed on March 2, 2018

Lightyear One: Commercial Electric Car Powered By Solar Cells

The era of the electric car soon will take place around the world. Various technologies to support the performance of electric cars are effectively and efficiently continue to be developed. Electric cars are very closely related to the energy storage device. There are two energy storage technologies commonly used, namely batteries that store electric energy and fuel cell that stores energy in the form of hydrogen gas. Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) or battery-powered electric car capable of producing electricity directly from the electrochemical reaction. Lithium ion batteries is still a popular choice as a source of electricity for the BEV, though metal-air batteries start to get into the market as a replacement for lithium ion batteries in BEV.

To traverse great distances, BEV requires the addition of a battery which results in a significant increase of the weight of the vehicle. Different case with perangakat energy storage in the form of hydrogen gas changed the hydrogen gas into electricity using a Fuel Cell. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) or hydrogen gas-powered electric car using hydrogen gas and oxygen from the air to produce electricity without any contact directly. This type of fuel cell that is generally used on electric cars is a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC). Advantages fuel cell is when distant crossroads, the weight of the vehicle is not increased in signfikan.

Read also: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) – From Bioetanol-fueled electric car to the power plant of household Scale

Figure 1. Comparison of BEV and FCEV [1]

On January 11, 2018, the electric car called the One Lightyear using solar cells as an energy source has won the competition "Climate Change Innovator Award". Lightyear One designed by a start-up company origin Netherlands named Lightyear to prove that solar cell-powered electric car can be implemented in real and mass-produced [2]. The hallmarks of Lightyear One than BEV and FCEV is the source of the electricity produced comes from sunlight so as to minimize the use of the charging station, charging EV (electric vehicle). On the word, Lightyear One can be recharged by sunlight, standard household power sockets, standard EV charging points, and EV fast charger. Lightyear One ever comes by battery as energy storage device electricity to drive at night. Solar cells are used at One Lightyear is first generation solar cell (monocrystalline Silicon) made of silica. Through the process of photovoltaic, solar light is transformed into electrical energy which will then become the source of electricity for Lightyear One. The distance that is able to reached by Lightyear One by using the battery is at a range of 400 – 800 km [2].

Read also:-comparison of each generation of solar cells-solar cells Perovskite (PSC): Organic solar cells of the future  

Figure 2. (a) Mission One Lightyear [3] (b) a map of the spread of a battery recharge stations [3]

Lightyear one has the mission to use the Sun's energy directly as a source of energy without the need to go through the processes of energy conversion. In addition, the number of rechargeable battery stations available across the world is still very slightly marked orange on Picture 2b. As a result the battery-powered electric cars have difficulty to travel long distances because the battery recharge stations least. By using solar cells, Lightyear One capable of traveling up to tens of thousands of kilometers. If the solar cells are used as a power source for the vehicle and recharge the battery, then the company has calculated how much distance it takes suitable climate country or city which was spent being shown by the following table.

Table 1. Harvesting solar energy according the city climate that affect mileage [3]

City Mileage (km)
Amsterdam 10,000
Paris 11,000
Madrid 17,000
Los Angeles 19,000
Chicago 14,000
Houston 16,000
New York 14,000
Washington 15,000
Honolulu 20,000
U.s. Virgin Islands 21,000

In the evening, Lightyear One must save energy in the batteries so One Lightyear still able to continue to travel. In addition, any One Lightyear rechargeable battery recharge stations. One Lightyear batteries can be recharged using a standard household power socket (3.7 kW): 40 km, standard EV charging points (10 kW): 110 km, and EV fast charger (75 kW): 180 km [3]. Refill process is performed for an hour that can reach a distance of appropriate types of content station he repeated.

Start-up Lightyear would produce 10 One Lightyear unit by the end of 2018 and will be marketed in the year 2019. Price of 1 Lightyear unit One is the €119,000 or the equivalent of 1.9 billion dollars [4]. The start-up is targeting in the year 2020 will sell 100 units Lightyear One. Name One Lightyear of distance traveled for a year of light as it passes through a vacuum. One light year is equivalent to 9.5 billion km. The expectations of the company is in the future, humans will be able to travel as far as 1 year light with the use of solar energy. How do Warstek best friend is interested to have it?

Read also: India and Germany will be producing an electric-powered Train solar cells and hydrogen Gas


[1] Thomas, C.E.S. 2009. Fuel Cell and Battery Electric Vehicles Compared. Virginia: H2Gen Innovations, Inc.

[2] Gohd, c. 2018. A Fully Solar-Powered Car May Be Hitting The Road By 2019. (retrieved January 23, 2018)

[3] a Lightyear. January 23, 2018)

[4] Mahon c. 2018. The First-Ever Fully Solar-Powered Car Hits The Road in 2019. (retrieved January 23, 2018)

Hywind Scotland: Floating Wind power plant, the first in the world

The potential of renewable energy in some countries started to be utilized optimally. China, USA and India is the country's most cutting-edge in utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind, and water. In addition to these three countries, European countries such as the United Kingdom (the UK includes four countries namely United Kingdom, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland), Germany and the Netherlands took part in a race to increase the use of renewable energy as an energy source electricity. In the report "Wind Energy in Europe: Outlook to 2020", European countries are planning to build a wind power plant on land (onshore) and offshore (offshore). The total installed power generation capacity of wind power in Germany until the year 2017 is 2.9 Gigawatt (GW) consisting of 2.3 GW GW 0.6 on land and offshore. The UK ranks second with a total installed capacity of 1.7 GW consisting of 1.2 GW on land and 0.5 GW of offshore [1].

Figure 1. The construction of a wind power plant in Europe [1]

In October 2017, the origin of the oil company Statoil, Norway, teamed up with Masdar (Uae companies) have built floating wind power plant, the first in the world. The power plant is located in the North Sea (North Sea) of Scotland, which is 15 miles from the coast of Petershead. This wind turbine development project called Hywind Scotland. A floating wind turbine development takes a long time and the confidence of various parties to prove that these turbines can work optimally.

In 2001, the engineers began to pour their ideas to make a floating wind turbine. To test their idea, then in 2009 they started making a floating wind turbine prototypes being tested off the coast of Norway Karmoy [2]. The capacity of 2.3 MW prototype with a long blade 85 meters. In the year 2015, the Scottish Government support and fund projects a floating wind turbine developed by Statoil company that will stand resplendent in the Ocean North of Scotland. The average wind speed in the North Sea is 10 m/s and 1.8 metre high waves [3].

Figure 2. (a) the location of the Hywind Scotland [4] (b) Illustration Hywind Scotland which has a total height of 253 m [3] (c) the design of a floating wind turbine [3]

Hywind Scotland has 5 pieces of turbines with a capacity of each of the 6 MW turbine so that the total installed capacity of 30 MW with a voltage of 30 kV transmission [3]. The weight of each wind turbine is 12,000 tons (12 million pounds). Turbine rotor diameter is 154 meters, the length of the bar 75 meters and total height of turbine 253 meters (78 meters below the sea level and 175 metres from sea level to the end of the bar) [5]. Hywind Scotland is supported by 15 anchor with each anchor has a height of 16 meters, a diameter of 5 meters and a weight of about 300 tons. Pole anchor and turbine connected by a chain with a length of 2.500 metres and weighs 1.200 tons. Hywind Scotland able to illuminate more than 20.000 houses in the region of the UK [5].


Figure 3. The development process of Hywind Scotland [3]

The funds needed to build the Hywind Scotland is 200 million pounds equivalent to 3.7 trillion rupiah [2]. To make wind turbines off the coast, the maximum allowed depth is 200 feet or about 61 meters. In addition, the pillar of the turbine should be planted in the seabed and must be able to withstand the waves of the sea so that the wind turbines stand sturdy. Hywind Scotland uses the concept of excellence which provide different than wind turbines are designed to be planted on the seabed. Statoil-owned floating wind turbine was built in depth of 255 feet or about 77 meters and Statoil explained that wind turbines can be installed at a depth of more than 2.600 feet or approximately 792 meters [2]. Hywind Scotland has several other advantages, namely the simple construction with a cheap manufacturing cost, resistance to extreme weather and the movement of optimal turbines.

Figure 4. Offshore wind energy potential of the world [3]

Offshore wind energy has huge potential. European countries have been building a wind farm off the coast with an installed capacity of 15 GW. Offshore wind energy potential of the world reach more than 100 GW [3]. Therefore, a floating wind turbine is expected to take 10% of the total potential. Statoil will illuminate the target of 12 million homes in the region of the UK in the year 2030. Furthermore, Statoil will develop technology Hywind in several countries such as Ireland, France, the USA and Japan.

Full Story of Hywind Scotland


[1] Nghiem, a., Mbistrova d., Fraile A and Remy t. 2017. Wind Energy in Europe: Outlook to 2020. Wind Europe [2] Gibbens, s. 2017. See The world's First Floating Wind Farm. January 19, 2018) [3] Statoil. 2017. Hywind – The world's Leading Offshore Wind Floatinf Solution. (retrieved January 19, 2018) [4] Best, s. 2017. World's First Floating Wind Farm Starts Generating Electricity Off The Coast of Scotland. (retrieved January 19, 2018). [5] Rogers, s. 2017. Scotland Officially Opens The world's First Ever Floating Wind Farm. (retrieved January 19, 2018)

Sidrap Wind power plant, the first in Indonesia's commercial

The potential of renewable energy sources in Indonesia is very abundant. Starting from wind energy, solar, ocean waves to biomass (see what's with the biomass? The potential Starting Tergali). By the end of 2019, the Government of Indonesia has been targeting to build additional power plants amounting to 35,000 megawatts (MW). It is based on the still low level of electrification ratio in Indonesia compared to neighboring countries such as Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. In 2010, the electrification ratio of Indonesia only are at numbers 67.15% and in 2015 rose to 88.30%. Electrification ratio of expected Government at the end of the year 2019 was 97.35%. To achieve this, the Government of Indonesia will give a portion to the MW 25,904 private and 10,681 MW to PLN [1]. Based on the General Plan of national Ketenagalistrikan (RKUN) 2015-2034, the source of energy used for electricity generation is divided into 4 categories, coal (50%), a new renewable energy (25%), oil (1%) and gas (24%) [1]. Coal is still the main source of national electricity needs. However, the Government is attempting to increase the construction of power plants from new renewable sources of energy (EBT). The advantage of EBT is pollution-free and ketersediannya are very abundant in Indonesia.

Figure 1. (a) the distribution of power plants and transmission network to meet the target of 35,000 MW [2] (b) the mix of energy sources in electricity generation based on RKUN [1]


One of the project's power plant to achieve the target of EBT 35,000 MW Sidenreng Rappang Regency is (Srikalahasthi), South Sulawesi by harnessing wind energy. He chose the area because of wind speed reached Srikalahasthi 7 m/s [3]. The project has started since April 2016 by UPC PT Bayu Srikalahasthi Energy with investments of about $150 million or Rp. 2.02 trillion [3]. UPC PT Bayu Srikalahasthi Energy is a consortium comprising the UPC Renewables Asia I, UPC Renewables Asia III, Sunedison and Binatek renewable energy.

Wind power plant/Bayu (FIRED POWER STATION) Srikalahasthi has 30 turbines. A total capacity of 75 MW is Srikalahasthi FIRED POWER STATION with a respective capacity of 2.5 MW turbine [4]. The turbine was built on a steel Tower is as high as 80 metres and three blades with lengths each about 57 meters so that the total height of the turbines reached 137 meters [4]. Model of the turbine is a wind turbine class IIA which is supplied from the company of origin Spain, Gamesa Lolica Corporation. FIRED POWER STATION requires land 100 acres with dugouts 100.000 m3.

Figure 2. Srikalahasthi FIRED POWER STATION development [5]

FIRED POWER STATION project Srikalahasthi employs 709 95% of people who are its citizens (WNI) Indonesia. The impact of the project is the construction of FIRED POWER STATION Srikalahasthi new roads along the 10 km and 4 new bridges with a total cost of US $350 thousand [5]. FIRED POWER STATION Srikalahasthi capable of illuminating the 70,000 homes in South Sulawesi. Ignatius Jonan, Minister of energy and Mineral resources (DEMR), said that the price of the first stage of the US $0.114 Srikalahasthi FIRED POWER STATION per kWh or equivalent with Rp. 1,540 per kWh [6]. The presence of FIRED POWER STATION Srikalahasthi are expected to meet the needs of electricity in South Sulawesi region, South-East and West (Sulselrabar). Currently, the condition of the electrical area of Sulselrabar reach 1,250 MW with a load of peaks reaching 1,050 MW. FIRED POWER STATION with a capacity of 75 MW Srikalahasthi is FIRED POWER STATION Srikalahasthi phase one. The Government will build FIRED POWER STATION with a capacity of two stage Srikalahasthi 50 MW. Ignatius Jonan promised to stage two Srikalahasthi FIRED POWER STATION, the rates will be lower than phase one Srikalahasthi FIRED POWER STATION. After 1 operating Srikalahasthi FIRED POWER STATION, then FIRED POWER STATION installed capacity nationwide increased to 76.1 MW from the past year new termanfaatkan of 1.1 MW [6].

FIRED POWER STATION construction by PT Srikalahasthi UPC Srikalahasthi Bayu Energy [5]

The Government of Indonesia is targeting to build a 22-FIRED POWER STATION in the entire territory of Indonesia. One of the FIRED POWER STATION development plans in the region of Sukabumi is next with a target capacity of 170 MW. Keep in mind, Indonesia has the potential of wind energy to reach 1.8 gigawatt (GW) [4]. This potential must be harnessed in order to sebaik-sebaiknya Indonesia society can enjoy its natural resources of its own. Soon, the public community of South Sulawesi, Indonesia in particular will enjoy the electricity generated by the dancers.

"I believe the future will be competitive when compared to EBT fossil energy, may not now, but soon in the future will be realized" Ignatius Jonan, Minister of MINERAL RESOURCES.



[1] the Directorate-General Ketenagalistrikan. 2016. The Policy Of The Government In The Provision Of Electric Power Infrastructure Pembanguna. Jakarta: Ministry of energy and natural resources. [2] PT. PLN. 35,000 MW For Indonesia. on 9 January 2018) [3] Artanti, A.A. 2018. FIRED POWER STATION Srikalahasthi I Ready For Operation. (accessed on 9 January 2018) [4] Wardani, r. 2017. Srikalahasthi FIRED POWER STATION, the largest Wind power plant in Indonesia. (accessed January 9, 2018) [5] UPC Renewables. January 9, 2018) [6] Primadhyta, s. 2017. Jokowi showing off the progress of Indonesia's first FIRED POWER STATION Project. (accessed on 9 January 2018)

India and Germany will be producing an electric-powered Train solar cells and hydrogen Gas

The use of fossil fuels is a major producer of CO2 gas emissions. Fossil fuels are generally used on transportation by land, sea or air. In 2010, the transport sector accounted for CO2 gas emissions amounted to 5.53 million tonnes [1]. Countries around the world began to seek solutions to reduce the use of fossil fuels. In the marine transportation sector, China has been producing electric cargo ship and the USA have made electric speedboat. Solar Impulse 2 is a product prototype air transportation from Switzerland who have made the flight from Abu Dhabi to San Francisco. In the land transport sector, a market master Tesla electric car with a lithium-ion battery technology. However, there is one mass transportation on land untouched renewable energy i.e. train. Conventional railway still uses diesel fuel that generates CO2 gas emissions and noise from the engine.

Germany and India became the leading country in the use of renewable energy on a train. They are designing and creating a fully electric train driven by renewable energy to replace diesel-fueled trains. Keep in mind, the electricity used in electric train is still supplied by power plants that use fossil fuels.

India Rail-Powered Solar Cells

The Government of India shocked the world on Climate Change Conference of the year 2015 through his statement that will produce electricity amounting to 160 GW of wind turbines and solar cells on 2022 [2]. This encourages the installation of solar cells in India has increased very significantly. Floating solar cell was built in some cities to realize its promise. In addition, India also invested considerable funds to install solar cells on the roof of trains in December 2017. Solar cell used is a kind of thin layer solar cells flexible. The solar cells are mounted on the roof of a local train 250 [3]. Electricity generated is used in AIR CONDITIONING and lights in the train. In addition, lithium ion battery used for energy storage on the train.

Figure 1. Solar cell-powered train in India [2]

16 the solar cell panel will be installed in every train cars that are capable of producing 300 Wp. Solar cell power train estimated to be capable of reducing the use of as many as 21,000 litres of diesel per year and reduce CO2 emissions by as much as 9 tons per year [3]. The train can run for 72 hours with a speed of 80 km/h. In March 2015, India has had 7,137 railway station. Arun Jaitley, Minister of Finance of India, announced that 7,000 railway stations in India will use solar power plant with a capacity of 1,000 MW [4]. Currently, the Government of India still completed the construction of 300 solar cell-powered station with hopes of increased to 2.000 train station as soon as possible [4]. This has not been fully electric train makes solar cells as the main energy because the main fuel to drive the trains still use diesel. Nevertheless, the Government of India are designing solar cells that are more efficient and effective so that the train can be fully driven by electricity derived from solar cells. This is the first step to applying environmentally friendly energy on electric train. hydrogen Gas as a source of Energy trains in Germany

If India designed the electric train using the solar cell technology, Germany designing a train fueled entirely by electricity using fuel cell technology. The fuel from the fuel cell technology is hydrogen gas and oxygen from the air. This electric train will use lithium ion batteries as storage of energy. Alstom, a French power companies, will create 14 gas-fueled electric train of hydrogen which will be tested in Germany in 2018 [5]. The train is named Coradia iLint who are able to travel along the 1,000 km with a single tank of hydrogen gas which is fully charged. The maximum speed that can be attained is 140 km/h [5]. Fuel cell is an electrochemical device that reacting hydrogen gas and oxygen to produce electricity. In addition to electricity, the product produced by the fuel cell is water vapor. The company says that hydrogen gas was used in electric train is a side product of the industry. The project is a joint venture between Alstom and Linde (original gas company Germany) which will supply hydrogen gas.

Figure 2. Design train with fuel cell technology [6]

The trials will be conducted in Germany drew the attention of the Government of the UK. The UK Government declared it will use the technology of fuel cell on electric train at 2021 if the trials are successful [7]. In the year 2050, the Government is targeting the UK's zero emissions in each sector of transport. One of the towns in the UK which were preparing the concept of zero emissions is Oxford. This is in line with the results of the discussions on climate change, held in Bonn, Germany in November of 2017 to reduce CO2 emissions resulting from different sources. The discussion was attended by countries that are members of the network of the United Nations.

Fuel cell technology will be more widely its use especially in the land transport sector since efficiency doubled compared to diesel engines. Before India and Germany developed a solar cell-tech electric train and a fuel cell, the Government of the Netherlands had been to make electric trains using wind energy. However, the concept of an electric train created by the Government of the Netherlands is to transmit electricity from the wind farm outside of train systems [8]. While Germany and India use solar cells and fuel cells as a producer of electrical energy in a single system with the train.


[1] Ritchie, H and Max r. CO2 and other Greenhouse Gas Emissions. on 7 January 2018) [2] and The Economic Times. 2017. Indian Railways Launches The First Solar-Powered Trarin. (accessed on 7 January 2018) [3] Miley, j. 2017. 250 Trains Will Be Fifted With Rooftop Solar Panels in India. (accessed on 7 January 2018) [4] Climate Action. 2017. Solar Panels to be fifted on 250 Trains in India. (accessed on 7 January 2018) [5] Reuters. 2017. Germany Signs Contract for the First Hydrogen-Powered Passenger Trains. (Diakses pada 7 Januari 2018) [6] Alstom Communication. 2017. Coradia iLint : Alstom’s Zero-Emission Train. Alstom [7] Burgess, M. 2017. World’s First Hydrogen-Powered Passenger Trains Takes to The Tracks in Germany. (Diakses pada 7 Januari 2018) [8] The Guardian. 2017. Dutch Electric Trains Become 100% Powered by Wind Energy. (Diakses pada 7 Januari 2018)