The State and Science *

"In conducting a fair and prosperous society, the need for assistance feels the more days than science" Sukarno – a […]

"In conducting a fair and prosperous society, the need for assistance feels the more days than science" Sukarno – a hearing Closing first National Science Congress (1958)

Sukarno, the first President of the Republic is so powerful it sends underlined the important role of science. This confidence proved to be a success, unfortunately not for the people of Indonesia. Japan and South Korea (Rok) is a testament to a country that is able to translate the commitments of his nationality (like Sukarno) to put the science as the basis for the development of the country.

The two countries made the science, innovation and technology – as well as as a foundation in deciding the direction and goals. The House ingeniously clever in research centres and colleges actively by the State to answer the fundamental challenge and asked specifically to contribute to answer the strategic issues as a result of the birth of thought and new technologies. Even the helm of Japan, been invited scientists to exchange ideas and routinely carried out each month.

However, we must be aware of also, neither Japan nor South Korea has had a level of high science literacy in 1945. So when destroyed by World War II, they were able to rise up and become the center of current advances in science. Venus (2008) in his book the power of competitiveness of Indonesia: prepare for the knowledge-based Society, asserts that such success can not be released from the infrastructure of knowledge societies, such as: the workforce educated, the availability of infrastructure research and development, educators and researchers who are excited about science, the existence of a commitment the nation who want to produce (not just consumption), and certainly of sufficient capital support.

The program has put forth such preconditions Bung Karno stadium before hundreds of participants of the first National Congress of Science (1958). Expressly conveyed, development requires three things, namely, "investment in the field of materials, investment human skill, and attitudes of the invenstment". Mental concept investment Bung karno be very relevant to today, where the need to instill the notion that contains "content, content, content, content knowledge with the community, with the outlook the outlook of society, … all for all. " This shows that the Bung Karno Stadium very want science air-a new outlook, that science knows her serve development, since the planning up to the Organization of the development.

The public perception towards science and technology

In the year 2014, the Research Center for development of science and technology-LIPI conducted a survey to gauge the level of interest, viewpoints, and understanding of the people towards science and technology. A survey conducted in 10 cities in Indonesia (Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, Makasar, Denpasar, Balikpapan, Batam, Yogyakarta and Ambon) shows the results that the three major science and technology definition defined by the science and technology community is as great in the field of science and technology, namely amounting to 76%; the science and technology related to the improvement of human life (62%); and the science and technology is a great tool to make changes (46%). This indicates that the community look at Indonesia science and technology as something that has a huge impact and give change. The survey results also showed that the science and technology issues most widely understood by the community associated with social media, organic and inorganic garbage and immunization. It is increasingly strengthened public perception that towards a new science and technology limited the use of social media, so if you already use social media then someone is seen understand science and technology itself.

This survey also suggests that as big society obtain information source most used about the science and technology is the most recent and news through the internet, television, and newspapers. The third source of television is a kind of information source most used to get the latest news. While the internet is becoming the main source of information used to obtain information about science and technology news.

A survey conducted for the second time after the year 2008 saw Indonesia increasingly community have an understanding that education as a field of the most sought after, followed by science and technology related to health and food. Three of these sectors so the highest attention in a number of major cities, metropolitan, and megapolitan. This condition becomes a signal that society in urban education is looked at as important in life. This is relevant to the available data, where the field of science and technology that is considered the most influential in the next 25 years, according to the society is education (59%), information and technology (57%), health (44%), economics and business (34%), and food (30%).

On the other hand, the public has high expectations towards science and technology. Survey data mentions more than 80% of society hope science can give new hope to future generations; able to find renewable sources of energy; and can make a human being make the job more attractive. Meanwhile, 15% of the public still hold negative toward science and technology, since it considers there is no need to know about science and technology.

Contribution of science in answering the challenges of the nation

In a discussion with LT. John Greenwood (one of the researchers Excel in LIPI) revealed, on a philosophical level, there is no disagreement over the importance of science to achieve objectives and solutions of various problems of the nation. But in the formulation and implementation of policies of many models of different approaches, and even (as if) opposite each other. Looking at the history of science Indonesia, this gave rise to contradictions between the public's expectations to excessive science and community, as well as on the other side of the low support stakeholders due to kekurangnampakan/ the uncertainty is nothing much science in the short term that is actually a characteristic of natural science activities.

LT. John Greenwood (2015) added that the emergence of dualism and dizziness among the perpetrators and homeland policy holders as a consequence of global demands to increase the capacity and competence, as well as on the contrary demands of the public (and political) local short term nothing will ' look '. In the developed countries and the major players of the world of science, this kind of dichotomy is also still the issue though not as large in developing countries such as Indonesia.

The display Windows of the history and experiences of other countries, should contribute science focused as the main motor of ' increased competitiveness of Nations '. Increased competitiveness as the effect of the increased competence and capacity of the nation particularly related HR (human resources), as well as the effects of derivatives in the form of a new creative economy industry-based science and technology (science and technology). Unfortunately, confusion of understanding in a country like Indonesia often encourage policy holders choose a shortcut with the reduction of the activities of science as purely for the strengthening of industry and the economy without looking at the ' process ' that must be follow.

The lack of attention, or confusion this understanding as a result of close research activities that in many cases do not always correlate directly with the short term goal. There are even some understanding that there is nothing in science dikonotasikan as pemuas the interests of managing personnel, and does not contribute to the creation and strengthening of the competitiveness of the nation in the long run. This sort of dichotomy need not have happened if the regulation and management of research is implemented consistently according to global norms and rules. Rules, standards and indicators for research is universal, and hence inconsistency will cause distortions in the implementation of various aspects of the implementation. For example, the application of the rules and norms of universal scientific output indicators for research activities which failed to apply trigger a variety of unnecessary regulation and otherwise potentially download the demotivation of good research practice. In contrast often triggers a wide array of ethical lapses among perpetrators of research activities.

On the other hand, plural going public pressure and top management were so great to produce science-based downstream without any attempt to see the source of the problem which in fact is much lower, i.e. a low level of competence and HUMAN RESOURCE capacity the offender research. Coupled with the fact the potential of the younger generation (pre-student) that Indonesia is able to compete at the forefront of global scientific competition, but similar achievements do not continue on the world of actual research, reflect the existence of fundamental problems in college level high (PT) research institutions and non-PT Indonesia. Illustration of the importance of ' keeping ' the process towards the final result can be indicated by ' 10% ' Law as above, namely that to produce saleable products 1 ' hard ' even required 10,000 invention ever!

The Promise Of The President Of The Jokowi

A strong desire from Jokowi for favors to science starts from the commitment in the Nawacita, then continue on a September 2014 open a discussion on the building of LIPI Jakarta, where with palpable he stated "research is a the things that are important to the progress of Indonesia ". And promises to make the research of Indonesia for the better in his Government in the future. In order to strengthen the research, then he made the effort to fold the duplicate Government budget for research needs.

Not only there, April 2015 in Puspiptek Serpong on National Innovation Forum, back President Jokowi promised the addition of funding research. The idea of adding to the budget is not without cause, according to Jokowi so that the long term results of research can be intangible in a product that is economical and can be used then it is important to increase the funding of research, especially for the vital sector.

Commitment to impartiality in science also delivered by coordinating Minister for human development and culture (Coordinating FMD) Puan Maharani, March 2015 "the Government is committed to raising the research and innovation development budget. This is an opportunity to improve the performance and productivity of the research paper, so the implications of technology for the community in the next five years must be reliable ". In addition to the commitment of budgets, Coordinating Minister for FMD in August 2015 also stressed the need for a Mental Revolution in the fields of research, science and technology and higher education, so that the research carried out at the highest possible benefit-oriented for the life of the community.

Even Coordinating FMD announced to build economic independence Indonesia through the development of research and science, which will be tangible in the master plan of development and National Science and Technology Development for the medium and long term. This document is an annotation and the Division of roles – the task of higher education institutions, research and development institutions as well as the world of business and industry, the focus of the field of research and science technology, a projection of the desired product, and needs the budget as well as its human resource needs.

Sincere desire, commitment, a promise and a dream to put science to base in the development of the State First period back echoed early October 2015. When the other four annual entitled National Science Congress (KIPNAS) XI. Six hundreds of scientists, researchers, academics and stakeholders sit together for mutual shedding thoughts for the promotion of science in Indonesia. Coordinating FMD back encourages scientists to be able to present a solution for the nation with science, technology and innovation, and he assured that the Government encourage the optimization strategy combining research with research into education Affairs height. These options, other than for the sake of optimizing the use of the funds, as well as to spur the development of the sector.

However, the hadiran figure of the leadership of this country, the anticipated hundreds of scientists on KIPNAS XI to raiseth the spirit and commitment, as well as penuntas a paradise for wind and thirst among scientists Indonesia has yet to materialize. Hopefully the real commitment and acts of partisanship toward the furtherance of science coming soon from President Jokowi. **


* Note: this is a full version of writing articles with the same title "State and Science: tracing the cultural research and the various obstacles faced by researchers in the country." loaded magazines Esquire Indonesia, the February 2016, and has published blog that LIPI.


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